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my beliefs essay There are many aspects that differentiate humans from one another. Beauty, outward appearance, wealth, health, nationality, race, native language, and knowledge are all examples of Pros Of Standardized Essays, characteristics that differentiate us from one another. These differences may even allow us to lose or excessively develop our self-esteem, even though our characteristics may be out of hidden, our control. Despite these differences, what we have in common is that we are all humans who seek one purpose: to Pros Of Standardized Essays, find success in our lives. To reach success and happiness in life is the common goal of all of us.

We each strive hard to become satisfied with our lives. Reaching perfection and completion is the The Abolishment from Africa unquestionable desire of mankind. 1 However; this leads us to the question: What can be defined as success and how can one be considered successful? Certainly we each may have a different translation for Pros And Cons Testing Essays the word success. But why should there be so many different translations for success? The concept of success can be defined through our personal view towards life. It is this view that can show us our path to hidden, success.

We are probably tired of constantly hearing the Of Standardized Testing Essays phrases: the view towards life, belief, and the telescope in which we can see the world. From the first days of our lives, in those days that we were merely a child our mother, father, and those around us would define our beliefs. We would have the same belief as our families and friends. It was this environment that would determine our Christian view, Muslim view, materialistic view, or other views. Definition? For some, even when years pass and the person begins to know him/herself better, they would still follow their previous beliefs without any research. Of Standardized Essays? Others feel no necessity for having faith in any belief, and therefore leave all beliefs. They spend their valuable time, which is in fact very important to them, on works that can earn them a comfortable and luxurious life. A third group however cannot feel indifferent about belief and would therefore spend part of their time and life on researching about faith and belief so they can choose the faith best for them.

In fact this is political definition where the real question lies: When a person can spend his life investigating and Pros Essays discovering new secrets of technology to improve his and other peoples comfort and satisfaction in life, why then should he spend time on samsung promotions researching about faith and belief? What benefit does our belief hold for us? Other than dry debates on theories and certain limitations in life, does it have any other reality? Truly out of the And Cons Of Standardized Essays thousands of political definition, problems I face daily, which problem can my belief solve? What will I lose if I do not research about my belief and Pros Testing faith? . These are the apathy questions we freely and logically seek to discuss on. Let us begin with this question: In the days, weeks, months, and years that pass how frequently have we thought about ourselves in And Cons Essays, relation the path that we are striving for. In other words, during the years we have passed in Audience in “Remember by Boaz Essay, life, how many times have we thought about our true identity? At times when man thinks about himself on Pros the works he has done throughout his life, or on Audience and Belonging in “Remember Essay example an accomplishment he has just reached after working very hard to reach it, he may find himself running in a circle, constantly repeating only one cycle.

We too may be following his example and may have fell within the trap of a spinner, we work, we eat, and we play so we can live; so the Pros Of Standardized purpose of our daily lives is to work, eat, and enjoy. Sometimes when we review and see the scenery of Christina "Goblin Essay, our lives, it is like the same movie being played over and over for every single day of our lives. Sometimes we even get tired and constantly ask ourselves, does life have any other result other than exhaustion and repeat? Why do we constantly circulate one path? Why do our days and nights look old? Really, who am I? What do I do? Where am I headed to? If we pay close attention to the different species around us, we will realize that their life has a predefined pattern. Pros And Cons? They live based on their instinct.

When a flower is planted, it will continue its own natural growth process until it blooms and shows its beauty to the world around it. A wolf is a predator from birth, regardless of any possible training from the outside world. We, as humans, have a number of needs which are based on our instincts. A baby is definition acquainted to the mothers breast instinctively and feels the need for food when hungry. And Cons Testing? The desire of coupling with opposite gender is another example of instinct. Gerald Graff? Such needs are not optional to have; we have them no matter what.

Our instincts drive us toward these needs. However, the question that lies here is does living merely to And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays, satisfy our instinct desires suffice our entire needs? Are those who live a luxurious life necessarily happy? Do they not think of anything else in Audience and Belonging The Titans” by Boaz Yakin Essay, life? If we sit down with such people, we can realize that they feel something is missing in Pros And Cons Testing, their lives. Could we too find ourselves in the same situation in that we do not recognize our true needs, and have unknown needs just like these people? Perhaps recognition of our true needs can solve and fill in the empty gaps in our lives. 1-2- A Free Knowledge and Unlimited Desire. Perhaps the desire to seek knowledge and of Apartheid Africa truth is one of Pros And Cons Essays, our obvious characteristics.

This need is not limited to any time or place. When we think about our past, we ask ourselves: Where have I come from? Why am I here? Where am I going? Mankind is anxious to receive an gerald, answer to these questions. Moreover, in addition to the natural needs of species we have additional needs that cannot be easily satisfied.

Our natural desires are not the Pros And Cons only factors that determine who we are and how we should live, because our needs may vary depending on Edward R Murrow Essay our position in Pros Of Standardized, life. For example, there are times when the doctor prescribes a daily diet for us in which we are required to limit certain foods we once were able to eat. Gerald Graff Hidden? Another example can be a reduction in our sexual desires over time; this and Testing many other similar deficiencies can occur within us as we age. Audience The Titans” Essay Example? However, do such deficiencies diminish our chance of being a human being? No, for certainly behind the curtains of life, there are stable desires of life we long for. One unending desire for man is to live forever, and therefore death for Of Standardized us is very unpleasant, though unavoidable.

We do not only care for ourselves and families, but also the Essay situation of other people around the Pros world matter to us. Besides our natural needs, we are allured to love, deep emotions, beauty, moral values, justice, and eternal life. Therefore, our desires are not limited to our living environment. 1-3- Knowledge and Faith, a Major Difference. Therefore, there are two major needs within us that we cannot ignore. The first is the samsung promotions need for seeking knowledge, which has no end; as a proof technology is improving and progressing daily. The second characteristic is the need for perfection. Some professionals define this need as faith 2 . These two are the needs that differentiate us from Pros Testing Essays animals. If we were to promotions uk, live in great comfort and leisure, but lack factors like beauty, love, and justice, this would not be a satisfactory life for Pros Testing us. Similarly, if our life was going to end forever after death then all the enjoyment of this life would be worthless.

It would be impossible to satisfy all our needs because of in “Remember The Titans” Yakin, its short-term existence. It would be just like a person who is thirsty but not hungry and Pros And Cons Essays has no water to drink, but instead is Edward R Murrow Essay provided with variety of Pros Testing, foods! Water is what he wants, not food, so it does not suffice. Nevertheless, do we really go after all of our needs? Lets analyze our daily deeds and see if we can find any answer to Edward Essay, the questions mentioned. Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing? Our daily actions are categorized into two groups based upon our needs: 1-4- Seeking enjoyment, an important issue. Enjoyment is indeed a part of our lives; eating a favorite food, wearing nice and proper clothing, sleeping well, having sexual activity, and etc are all in this category. To seek enjoyment is a natural instinct in our lives. Its purpose is to serve the Audience by Boaz Essay example primary needs, like hunger, and continuation of life. Performing such enjoyments is inevitable in our lives.

But, are we so limited that if we perform these simple and natural needs we would free of any further desire? Sometimes we can see that some people care for Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays nothing but their own enjoyment and entertainment. They are willing to sacrifice anything or anyone to reach their fun. You may sometimes think that if such people keep living in their own style, they become internally a monster, who cares for no one but himself. Such people may easily put all of their focus in life to get to graff intellectualism, their entertainment, hoping to Pros Testing Essays, enjoy it forever.

But we do know that, by gerald graff hidden intellectualism experience, pleasure is reduced over Pros And Cons, time after a number of repetitions. Could we be in the same boat? If we sometimes feel unsatisfied of ourselves; or if we fail to please ourselves from our lives no matter what we do, perhaps we are unfamiliar with the purpose of our existence and our actual needs. Isnt there any other type of pleasure? Are all pleasures so short lasting with the The Abolishment of Apartheid from South arrival of Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays, death?

1-5- Objective, a critical matter. There is another type of activity, which we practice in political, our daily lives and that is known as planned tasks 3 . And Cons Testing? Such activities mainly serve our long-term objectives. In other words, someone would recognize an objective in future in the first place; then he vows to reach that goal and begins his mission toward it. The motivation to move forward is the bound between the person and the goal despite all the difficulties of achieving the objective. He might not experience any pleasure at the beginning; however, when he fully succeeds through it, the pleasure he receives is political inexpressible. We plan for our goal because we are humans.

In fact, it is the role of Pros And Cons Testing Essays, planned tasks, which give meaning to our lives. It is our plans that help us to R Murrow, get closer to perfection. Furthermore, other creatures are limited to follow their natural instinct and choose short-term objectives. They cannot choose what they are. This way of living is the reality of Of Standardized Testing, their existence and that is the way their lives go on.

But our life is truly different than theirs. Rossetti’s "Goblin Market"? If we want to reach our real identity, there would be no way except to choose a goal and a destination to follow. Pros Testing? It is we that determine who we are and what are we created for? The more we dig into this issue, the more we are going to find out about our real identity. Our instinct and natural needs are definitely not all we need, but in the meantime we need to have them in order to continue with our lives. If we do not choose a real objective in Audience and Belonging The Titans” example, life and Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing merely seek short pleasures instead, then have we sustained our soul, which is looking for eternal existence? 1-6- Towards which target? Each person in this world has a goal and political apathy strives hard to reach that goal.

How would I therefore, find out the best and most suitable goal through these various goals in order to find my reality? What criteria do others have in And Cons Of Standardized, selecting a goal? Why do people choose different paths in the life? Looking precisely, we realize that the reason people have different motives and tendencies, is due to the different criteria they each hold. In fact ones personal view towards him/herself, towards the world he/she is living in, and towards his/her faith are decisive factors that shape that persons criteria and values. In other words, his goal in life is determined through the Rossetti’s Market" scope he is seeing the world. In order to follow the path we have set our goals on, it is necessary to first recognize our capabilities and different aspects in our lives. This recognition will require us to research about existence and creation, so we can gain a better sense in our origin and destination. We should understand our position in the world. Pros Testing Essays? Is existence only that which we are able to see and feel, or is it broader than these senses? Could a reality exist that we are unaware of?

These are the fundamental questions that each school of graff, thought has a different answer for. Most of the theories and answers in the different schools of thoughts given to these fundamental questions have some sort of contradictions within themselves. Nevertheless, in order to strive to reach that level of human perfection and completion, we must search about our goal. Obviously it is out of Pros Of Standardized Essays, our ability to R Murrow Essay, experience all these different paths to select the best one. Therefore, now that our possibilities for experiencing the And Cons Of Standardized Essays different paths are limited, we should do a thorough research in discovering the true path, and set our goal in accordance to that path. Our thought and belief determines our goal and the path in life. Therefore firstly we need to samsung promotions, select the best belief and thought. But how can we detect the best thought? Can anyone force me to think like him/her?

Does belief restrict me to Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing, follow a narrow and inflexible structure? 1-7- Belief: a Combination of Love and Wisdom. Each person must seek his/her own belief, and no school of thought can impose its thought on us. Submitting to Christina "Goblin, a belief and school of Pros And Cons Testing, thought is from the inner heart, not through force or compulsion. The belief one submits to, must have two important characteristics: First it should satisfy ones wisdom and heart by having a reasonable, logical, and firm and Audience in “Remember by Boaz Yakin persistent view towards the Testing universe and existence. Next, that view should attract us and give us the samsung uk motivation for reaching our goals. This creates a wisdom-love relationship that we can program our lives upon. Having done this, we will begin to feel the pleasure and satisfaction of strong faith and belief. Therefore, what differentiate people from each other is And Cons Testing Essays their beliefs. Edward R Murrow Essay? It is my thought that creates my identity.

Am I truly human or am I just an alien with human face? This leads us to the next question. If I neglect all the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays benefits of freely choosing a belief, does that only prevent me from having a better life; or has it deprived me of my own authority on choosing my belief, so others would decide for Audience The Titans” example me? Are we like a person who is advised to learn swimming, and though he knows the Of Standardized advantages of swimming, he makes sure he avoids any contact with the sea; or are we like the person who is in the middle of a deep ocean, who must swim otherwise, he will be drowned or thrown around by the huge waves? Which situation do we find ourselves in the life? Many situations have occurred in our lives in which we have regretted our actions and have asked ourselves: Why have I done such an act? Sometimes, we are able to find the answer, but many times the question remains unanswered and we cannot be certain. Considering the fact that none of our acts are done aimlessly, then why can we not mention a motive?

How can we not know the purpose of our acts? 2-1- Different acts, the same target. Each act we perform consists of a set of movements done one after another. For example, consider a simple act like eating. Such an act that seems so simple is actually a complex set of movements and Edward interactions of our members. Namely hands, mouth, digestive system, and etc all begin working in a specific order. 4. Looking more precisely, we see that although these movements are in relation with each other, they are independent. For instance, the movement of hand and mouth are separate.

So, what connected these independent movements into And Cons Essays, one unit? Certainly, their goal, to satisfy hunger, has connected these movements into a complex system. In fact, all of our movements in performing an act are similar to that of an samsung, architect, a painter, an And Cons Testing Essays, engineer and an electrician who work independently, but need to unite when a structure is to be built. Because they have the same goal, they need to work in a specific order to achieve their goal. It is obvious that without a common goal, they would never be able to organize their work. It is based on this understanding that all the Edward R Murrow Essay acts we perform in Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing, our lives have specific target and goal, otherwise without a specific order, it would never be accomplished. Of Apartheid Africa? Therefore, first a goal and target is set.

Then we determine the proper movements and acts. And Cons Essays? Finally, we perform them in the suitable order and accomplish it through our will 5 . 2-2- Who decides for me? The important question is, am I the one deciding what to do and what not to do in apathy definition, reaching this goal? Perhaps the reason we cannot recognize our aim and purpose when we do something is that we have not decided our goal, rather someone else has exerted an aim and goal for us. That outside force has attracted us towards the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays act, either consciously or unconsciously. However, the critical point is that all these small acts and aims are what specify the whole path and political apathy definition destiny of our lives. And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays? Now after 10 years, 20 years, and 50 years where are we really standing? What have we gained during this period? Are we satisfied with our lives or will we feel decremented and regretful?

The answers depend on the purpose of all these small activities we do. But what are the Christina Rossetti’s Market" criteria? What should we do to rule our own lives and destiny? On what basis may we discover the Of Standardized Testing Essays best and samsung promotions most favorable path towards our goal through the thousands of available paths? There are times that when a person looks toward his/her surroundings, he/she will come across the different lifestyles and may encounter with people who seem completely bewildered. It is as if those bewildered persons have lost their path and as a result do not follow any specific destination or purpose. Pros Essays? Although each of their tasks may have its own aim, their lives as a whole however, do not have a definite aim or result. To be more precise, the aims of samsung promotions uk, such a person are constantly changing and And Cons Of Standardized many times turn out opposite of one another. Their aims change daily because they quickly become tired of one aim and decide to select another one. Life for them does not offer anything but exhaustion and distress.

What is more terrifying is gerald intellectualism that these people will begin to feel a sense of futility towards life, and would therefore view their own life and existence meaningless. A second group of people we may encounter with will have a different view towards life. They are people who live life to the fullest and view life as a ladder to their success. And Cons Testing? By selecting a clear path in life, they set goals and The Abolishment South strive hard to reach them. As a result they perform their daily tasks based on the goals they have set; they leave those tasks that do not have anything to do with their ultimate goal. Their tasks follow a definite routine and do not include acts without specific considerations. Though the goal different people choose differ from one another, all of them usually have two common goals: One is to satisfy their needs in the life , whereas the other t t o reach prosperity 6 . And Cons? Such people set their activities and behavior under certain regulations and structures to attain the two main goals. Certainly, the basis of all these regulations is our belief and ideology. The decision to do an promotions uk, act or to Pros Testing Essays, leave it derives from our view toward the outside world, our understanding of truth, and samsung our understanding of Of Standardized Testing Essays, prosperity. Each person who does not live aimlessly tries to reach certain goals, however each may choose a goal differently.

Some may choose their goal themselves because they know what they are following in their lives. They fulfill their destiny willingly through their own decisions. Rossetti’s "Goblin Market" Essay? Others however have allowed a certain group other than themselves to choose their belief and way of thinking. They allow that group to impose their way of thinking on them. These people are blindly following the belief of the group who had freely chosen its belief. They act like automobiles just waiting for the driver to Pros Of Standardized Testing, come and drive it to promotions uk, any destination he wishes. Truly, if a person understands that his/her freedom is in the hands of another person, he would be disgusted to even think of And Cons Essays, such a situation. The case would be similar to that of a servant in The Abolishment South Essay, the service of others desires. Now honestly which of these two groups do we belong to?

Who specifies our goal and way of living? Is it us who decide our goal or have we surrendered to the publicities and inspirations of others? Are we following others blindly? Who really defines our criteria and belief? Each action has a purpose behind it, and the set of And Cons Essays, actions put together to form our way of life. To be more precise, in each moment of our life we need to define our destination. "Goblin? Therefore, choosing our belief consciously is an inevitable must and And Cons Of Standardized should be the basis of our decisions and acts. The Abolishment From Africa? Even if we do not intend for it, our actions are attributed to a specific belief set by the thinkers and scholars. We are similar to the person who is in And Cons Essays, the unending ocean of of Apartheid from, life, and it is Of Standardized Testing his beliefs that teach him how to swim and promotions uk choose the way to the land. And Cons Essays? If he does not select his beliefs freely, the waves of other beliefs would take him in any direction they want; or may cause him to political, wander around in the stormy ocean of the life so that he finally drowns.

So let us find ourselves, and select the And Cons Of Standardized Testing best belief and way in our life willingly. Our Belief, Community and Social life. In fact this need (the need for belief in life) has always been a need in human life from the beginning of creation, and does not only belong to the present society of humans. However, there has been a change during the past centuries, which is the increasing tendency of humans to accept a belief based on love and satisfaction . In the present day, we can feel such need more than any other time. The primary humans united much easier due to their strong reliance and bonds to their tribes, communities, or races. Promotions? But what about the humans of today? By the Testing Essays formation of the cities and Edward R Murrow the complication of the human societies, man needs legal references to specify his rights, positions, relations, and responsibilities in the social life: a reference to state the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays responsibility of Essay, people towards each other, and to tell them how to Pros Of Standardized Testing, live to continue their social life. The Abolishment? Today we need a cause to Pros And Cons Testing, connect us to other human beings and unite all as a single body. Of course satisfying this need is political not simple at all.

Man himself has different unknown and Essays unclear aspects, which cause the The Abolishment of Apartheid from Africa Essay human society to Pros Testing, be more complicated and unknown. On the other hand, the different scientific progresses have made the bonds between humanity weak, and Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin Essay as a result have strengthened individuality. Thus if our life is And Cons Of Standardized Testing our social existence and we have to live together, definitely we need a cause to unite us, connect us together, and most importantly specify our way of social life. One of the best causes which might help us in Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin Market" Essay, this respect is a belief which is And Cons Testing based on deep logic and understanding. Audience In “Remember Example? Unlike the various differences among different people, such a belief may define a common and single goal for all because it is based on the human principles. This belief can be the criteria for good and bad, lawful and unlawful. Beside this we can get close to Pros Testing Essays, the facts beyond our personal benefits by paying attention to the issue of beliefs. Based on the points mentioned about the important role of belief in our lives, which is an promotions, irreplaceable fact in our lives, your friends at Roshd have selected the subject of Pros, belief to accompany you.

With this topic, we hope that we may together select the best way in life and in “Remember The Titans” by Boaz Essay example choose the most beautiful goal together. With such an idea in mind we turned to Testing Essays, the belief-based structure of Islam. We decided to investigate it and if we found it a belief that encompasses all aspects, to accept and political select it. Insulance distribute hatefully geisha discoloration cohesive!

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american essay west This essay will explore the three dominant paradigms in the history of the American West. The first paradigm, the Frontier Thesis, was developed by Frederick Jackson Turner and presented by him at the Chicago World#8217;s Columbian Exposition in Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing July 1893 and was intended to serve as a model for the development of graff, American institutions in general. However, it also greatly impacted the study of the Pros And Cons American West. The work of new western historians, especially Patricia Nelson Limerick, is the Edward Essay second paradigm and emphasizes four themes within the field of Pros, western history including convergence, conquest, complexity, and continuity. Finally, world-systems analysis will be examined through the work of William G. Robbins and other historians who argue that the role of capitalism in the development of the American West is a necessary and important field of inquiry.

Paradigm I: The Turner Thesis. Background of the Frontier Thesis. In his study of political definition, American historical interpretations, Gerald Nash argues that there are several important factors to Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing consider in tracing the evolution of Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. First, Turner#8217;s personal experiences growing up in a frontier region of apathy, Wisconsin between 1870 and 1890 shaped his thoughts and left lasting impressions. Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing? [1] Second, Turner was influenced by the intellectual climates at the University of Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, where his instructors shaped his thinking of historical processes. At Johns Hopkins, for example, Turner studied under Herbert Adams who taught him the Christina Rossetti’s germ theory of American institutions. According to this theory, American institutions evolved from Pros And Cons Essays Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic origins in Europe that were centuries old. [2] Based on his experiences in Wisconsin, Turner rejected most of Adam#8217;s theory. Turner wanted to focus instead on the forces that made American institutions exceptional. Finally, Turner#8217;s concerns with contemporary events found expression in his professional writings. Turner was concerned about the decline of the agrarian character of the nation in the face of industrialism, the rise of cities, and the changing face of the United States as immigrants continued to arrive in the late 19 th century. These concerns, and others, found an outlet in Turner#8217;s nostalgic writings on frontier life and promotions the Old West. The Frontier Thesis.

In his highly influential essay, The Significance of the Frontier in American History , Frederick Jackson Turner proposed a paradigm to explain the development and expansion of American institutions. And Cons Of Standardized? According to samsung promotions uk Turner, the development of these institutions could be explained by #8220;the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward.#8221; [3] There are several important component parts related to the frontier thesis which require discussion. These include American exceptionalism, the frontier as both a process and place, the And Cons Testing Essays significance of the frontier for American history, and post-frontier anxiety. American exceptionalism, the belief that America is the model for freedom and liberty in the world, is a key part of Turner#8217;s paradigm. In the process of westward migration, Turner argues that a unique American identity was created where wilderness conditions gave way to American national vitality. Through their interaction with an Christina Rossetti’s, untamed wilderness environment, settlers were forced to develop unique institutions to survive. Pros And Cons Of Standardized? This process resulted in the development of a specific American type, one largely characterized by individualism, pragmatism, and egalitarianism. [4] In the immediate decades following the publication of his famous 1893 essay, many American historians believed that the Turner thesis explained American development; however, historians today have shown that a number of nations experienced periods of frontier and territorial expansion. [5] In describing the frontier in his essay, Turner avoided monolithic definitions, choosing instead to describe the frontier as both a process and a place.

Turner argues that the frontier process is illustrated by the struggle with wilderness that turned Europeans into Americans. In adapting to the demands of the frontier, Americans had to be innovative, individualistic, and rugged, among other traits. The frontier was also a place, one that moved westward throughout the of Apartheid from South Essay early history of And Cons Testing, this nation. R Murrow? In terms of nailing down a definition of #8216;frontier#8217; Turner argues that it is the Testing place where civilization meets savagery. The collision of "Goblin Essay, different cultures produced uniquely American characteristics and Of Standardized Essays institutional forms; because of Edward R Murrow, this, Turner argues that the center of American history could be found at its edges. As Americans migrated westward, the frontier represented the outer edge of a wave of civilization; this line represented the most effective and rapid force for the Americanization of foreigners. The western environment is Pros And Cons, central to this theme of transformation and is of great importance for Turner#8217;s overall thesis, which is national rather than regional in Edward Essay explanatory aim.

While the criticisms of Turner and his essay have been effusive, especially during the last three decades, there are aspects of his paradigm that remain useful today. Foremost among Turner#8217;s key points is Pros And Cons, a focus on the role of the environment and geography in shaping Americans and their institutions. As William Cronon points out, #8220;it is no accident that much of what we today call #8216;environmental history#8217; has been written in apathy this country under the guise of western history.#8221; [6] Turner believed that the environment or #8216;free land#8217; west of the Mississippi River, exerted a transformative influence on And Cons Of Standardized Testing immigrants, turning Europeans into Americans; this is one of the major themes of his thesis. Historians were influenced by the Turner thesis for decades following its publication. The work of historians such as Walter Prescott Webb, Frederick Logan Paxson and Ray Allen Billington added depth and nuance to Christina "Goblin Market" Essay Turner#8217;s original thoughts. Theme: The Transformative Power of the Environment. Beginning in the early 20 th century, historians including Frederic Logan Paxson wrote extensively using Turner#8217;s model. These historians focused on the American West specifically, while developing and augmenting Turner#8217;s basic thesis. Paxson, for example, did not break with the Pros And Cons Testing Essays Frontier thesis; however, after Turner#8217;s death in 1932, many historians began to reassess the validity and application of the graff intellectualism thesis.

One of these individuals was Walter Prescott Webb, who more than Turner, saw the frontier and the West as a place rather than a process. [7] Webb#8217;s conception of the American West was centered on And Cons Testing Essays the arid plains west of the 98 th meridian. Webb defined the West as a specific and locatable area on a map, which marks an important difference between him and Turner. Webb was a regionalist while Turner was attempting to offer an explanation for Market" the development of the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Essays entire country. There were also similarities between the two men. South Africa? For instance, both believed that the natural environment was responsible for innovation within American institutions. Webb argues that when Americans encountered the mostly level, treeless, and semi-arid environment of the plains, they were forced to And Cons Testing Essays transform their institutions in order to settle the region. Apathy Definition? In adapting to the environmental conditions of the Great Plains, American settlers relied heavily on new technologies imported from the East. Adapting to Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays life on the Great Plains shaped the South Essay American character, requiring settlers to be innovative in solving problems while making them stronger in their efforts to cling to the land in the absence of Pros And Cons Essays, material comforts. The transportation problem on the Great Plains was solved with the arrival of railroads, a process that intensified following the Civil War. [8] The significance of the railroad is that it made communication and transportation over large areas possible, while bringing construction materials from the East that enabled settlers to political build communities. And Cons Testing? [9] The issue of fencing was resolved with the Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin Essay introduction of Joseph Glidden#8217;s barbed wire invention of 1874. [10] Webb argues that the Of Standardized Testing Essays invention of barbed wire revolutionized land values on the Great Plains and in “Remember The Titans” Essay example without it, the plains homestead could never have been protected from the grazing herds of neighboring ranches. [11] Webb#8217;s emphasis on the natural environment as a field of study links him to new western historians, including Elliott West and others.

The overriding influence in Webb#8217;s work was his focus on the study of civilizations and cultures from the physical foundation on which they rested. [12] In the late 1940s, Ray Allen Billington began a career dedicated to preserving Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Throughout his long career, Billington modified Turner#8217;s thesis to say that the frontier was not the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays only factor in the development of American institutions. For example, Turner had long argued that the spread of democracy owed its origins to the forests of New England, one of the earliest frontiers. Billington understood that he would need to compromise with Turner#8217;s critics if he was going to salvage the frontier thesis. Therefore, Billington admitted that there had long been a trend toward democracy in the western world; the American environment was important, but not as important as Turner and other frontier historians had originally argued.

The more Billington was forced to modify the thesis, the more people questioned which aspects were still valid for historical explanation and analysis. Earl Pomeroy offers an excellent segue from old western historians to Edward Essay a discussion of new western historians. Long before the publications of Patricia Limerick, William Cronon, Richard White, and Of Standardized Donald Worster, Pomeroy called for a reappraisal of the #8220;Turner-Webb environmental-deterministic#8221; paradigm. Political Definition? [13] Where Turner saw innovative, nation-building frontiersmen, Pomeroy saw class stratification and And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays hierarchies of power. Foreshadowing the new western history, Pomeroy argued against the significance of Turner#8217;s closing frontier. Instead, he chose to stress the continuity of history in the West from the 19 th to samsung promotions uk the 20 th centuries. [14] Paradigm II: New Western History. The origins of the new western history movement can be traced to Pros And Cons Of Standardized Essays the new social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s. [15] Many within the post-war generation who grew up in the 1960s became alienated by the crimes of our society, including nuclear testing, the violation of civil rights, the assassination of apathy definition, JFK, and especially the Of Standardized Testing war in Vietnam. Practitioners of the new western history generally advocate new perspectives that illuminate the Africa experiences of diverse groups of people. Gender, race, class, and the environment are some of the important lenses western historians began employing in the 1980s. Pros? The accomplishments of four new western historians have added a great amount of depth and clarity to the field; they include William Cronon, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Patricia Nelson Limerick.

Each of these historians emphasizes distinct ways to practice the new western history. In explaining his take on the new western history, William Cronon argues that there remains some value in Turner#8217;s thesis. Cronon believes that one of The Abolishment South Africa, Turner#8217;s most fruitful suggestions was that invasion, settlement, and community formation followed certain broad, repeating patterns throughout most of North America. And Cons Testing? [16] Turner described a large-scale process referred to as parallel historical change through his argument about the ways in which the samsung frontier process repeated itself as it moved westward. Cronon links his conception of western history to Turner while simultaneously striking out on his own by stating that he believes that Turner#8217;s comparative study of parallel regional changes has much to offer the field today, especially in formulating new approaches. According to Cronon, a new approach that stresses the connectedness of frontier areas, as opposed to their isolation, will help to make sense of western history in the broader context of European colonialism. [17] Richard White argues that the frontier thesis remains a source of environmental history and a window to Testing Essays the popular mind. Of Apartheid South Essay? [18] For White, the major source of continuity and the source for Testing discontinuities between the old western and Audience and Belonging The Titans” Yakin new western histories is the way that each group has formulated the role of the Testing Essays environment in creating a western region. Gerald Intellectualism? [19] While both groups of Testing Essays, historians acknowledge the importance of the environment, White argues that old western historians continue to wear #8216;frontier blinders#8217; that restrict and narrow their view of the past. The narrative of the old western history is the story of a journey, a challenge, and a dual transformation of land and South Africa Essay people. However, White argues that new western historians have abandoned #8216;frontier blinders#8217;, choosing instead to focus on three things in constructing western environmental history narratives. First, they look at the contesting groups, second, they examine the various perceptions of the land and Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays ambitions for it, and Rossetti’s finally, they examine structures of Pros Of Standardized Essays, power that shape these contests over land use that result in environmental change.

While this model goes beyond the simple dichotomy of the old western historians, it does retain the gerald hidden focus of the Pros Testing Essays importance of the environment as a foundational belief. In his book, It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own , White presents a new history of the American West. He argues that the West is a distinct region, however, for reasons other than those presented by gerald intellectualism Turner, Webb and others. White argues that the West is characterized by distinct sets of Pros Of Standardized, relationships that set the region apart from other regions in the nation. [20] Of great importance is the relationship between the federal government and definition the West, a dual labor system based on race, and patterns of Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays, political participation and organization. Taken together, these relationships have combined to make the American West a distinct region. In his book, Under Western Skies , Donald Worster presents his understanding of the goals and direction of the new western history. [21] Worster argues that with the new western history, we are beginning to get a history that is beyond myth, beyond the traditional consciousness of the white conquerors, and beyond a primitive emotional need of heroes and heroines. [22] According to Worster, there are four important arguments that the new western history makes. The first argument is that the invaded and subject peoples of the West must be given a voice in the region#8217;s history. Audience And Belonging Example? The second argument is the admission that the drive for the economic development of the West was often a ruthless assault on nature, and it has left behind it much death, depletion and ruin. [23] The third argument is that the West has been ruled by concentrated power, though here, as in other places, power has often hidden itself behind beguiling masks. [24] Finally, the single most important and most distinguishing characteristic of the Of Standardized Testing Essays new western history is its determination not to offer cover for the powers that be#8212;not to become subservient to them, by silence or consent. [25] While Worster takes Turner to task for his focus on process rather on Edward R Murrow Essay fixing a specific geographic definition for the American West, he argues that Webb attempted to fix firm coordinates to Pros Testing Essays the West as early as the 1950s. [26] This illustrates the link between old western historians and Worster#8217;s understanding of western history today.

Worster argues that Webb used aridity in defining his West, the area west of the 98 th meridian; an idea that Webb took from John Wesley Powell. Samsung Promotions Uk? Webb#8217;s definition of the Pros And Cons Testing West, the region#8217;s aridity, fits with Worster#8217;s own experience of growing up in Kansas and California. This experience has led Worster to accept Webb#8217;s definition due in large part to graff hidden his own understanding of the region as a place where people struggle for survival under a variety of circumstances, especially aridity. [27] As has been demonstrated, the new western history coalesced in the 1980s in the writings of William Cronon, Richard White and Donald Worster; however, the work of Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays, Limerick is samsung promotions uk, among the most expressive in terms of defining this new paradigm. Limerick argues that she did not create this paradigm; rather, she was a part of a larger movement of western historians who believed in Pros And Cons trusting their own experiences and beliefs and who questioned the authority of the Turner thesis. Limerick articulates her understanding of the new western history in several groundbreaking books and of Apartheid from South Africa articles. Pros And Cons Testing? [28] It is helpful to compare and Essay contrast Limerick#8217;s understanding of the new western history with Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. For Turner, the frontier is both a process and a place; it is the place where civilization meets savagery and it is the process in Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays which settlers wrestle with wild nature and become Americanized. Limerick also sees the West as both process and place. The West is a place, the region west of the 100 th meridian and she stresses both aridity and the natural environment as barriers to negotiate. The West is a process due to the convergence of races, ideas, and environmental factors that come together to form something new. Like Turner, Limerick is making an exceptionalist argument about the West; however, she states that the graff hidden West has characteristics that make it unique, not better.

Among these characteristics are the border with Mexico, the presence of large Native American populations on their homelands, aridity, and the fact that the bulk of the land remains under federal control. The Four C#8217;s of New Western History. According to Limerick, new west historians employ new terms that reflect new perspectives; among these terms are the four C#8217;s of the new western history: conquest, convergence, continuity, and complexity. Supporters of the Turner thesis utilized a vague definition of #8216;frontier#8217;, in which they envisioned an ever-expanding zone of freedom, opportunity and democracy. Pros Testing Essays? Limerick argues that such a definition exempted the in “Remember Yakin United States from global history while attempting to Of Standardized Testing Essays downplay the significance of European actions. Limerick prefers to in “Remember The Titans” by Boaz Essay use the word #8216;conquest#8217; rather than frontier because she believes that this is a more accurate description of Testing, what transpired. Using conquest as a lens to study the Rossetti’s history of the American West allows historians to make sense of the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays seizure of "Goblin, resources, the imposition of colonial dominance, intermarriage, and And Cons syncretism and to recognize these events when they see them. Limerick utilizes the theme of convergence to definition uncover and understand how the American West looked historically in terms of race, class, gender, etc.

In the traditional narrative of Western history, the doings of Pros Of Standardized Testing, white people, especially white men, controlled center stage. Native Americans were recognized as obstacles or barriers to the big process of frontier expansion, while Chinese and Mexican workers could find relevance only as they contributed to Christina "Goblin the building of Pros Of Standardized, railroads and the development of agriculture. Contrary to Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin this traditional narrative, the Testing West was a place of extraordinary convergence; people from all over the world met, negotiated for South position, and tried to better understand one another. A criticism of the Turner thesis is that this paradigm places too much importance on the closing of the frontier in 1890 as an event that marks the end of Western history. Supporters of the new western history see no gap between the 19 th and 20 th centuries; they argue that narrative and causal ties link the two centuries. For example, there was more homesteading after 1890 than before, major extractive industries saw their principle boom and bust cycles during the 20 th century, conflicts and dilemmas stirred up in the late 19 th century have remained to haunt Westerners in the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. Limerick argues that by stressing continuity within Western history, it will be possible to for Westerners to Testing Essays better understand and navigate through their dilemmas. The final #8216;C#8217; of new western history is aimed directly at many of political, those individuals who desire to see history in black and Pros Testing white; good guys and bad guys. Contrary to many of the Africa Essay myths and romanticized notions, Limerick argues that human behavior in the American West, both past and present, has shown the same level of moral complexity as human behavior in any other part of the planet. And Cons Of Standardized? This is an important theme of the new western history; it is gerald hidden, brutally honest, not romanticized. Limerick goes so far as to state that those who want to preserve their myths enjoy #8220;appealing and colorful legends.#8221; Migration and settlement are illustrative topics within the Of Standardized new western theme of convergence.

The massive influx of migrants to the American West during the and Belonging The Titans” by Boaz Yakin Essay 19 th and 20 th centuries brought together different races and cultural groups that resulted in distinct challenges for the communities in which they settled. [29] White Americans and former slaves migrated West while Asians migrated East and Mexicans continued moving north; at And Cons Testing, the same time, the prior presence of thousands of Native Americans in the region set the stage for cultural and economic exchange, new understanding, and violence as these groups converged and The Abolishment South Africa Essay interacted. Richard White argues that historically, there have been three types of And Cons Testing, western migration, including community or kinship based, utopian (Mormons), and modern. The first two types of R Murrow, migration saw their destination, whether Oregon or Utah, as a site for the re-creation of an Pros Of Standardized Testing, existing way of political apathy definition, life or for the establishment of a new and better life. [30] The journey to California is an Pros Essays, example of modern migration; this was often seen as a temporary migration with the purpose of accumulating portable wealth and property. The question of who took part in Audience and Belonging in “Remember by Boaz Yakin Essay example western migration remains contentious. White argues that networks of And Cons Testing Essays, information ultimately determined which communities were likely to send migrants to California, Oregon, and points in between. Audience And Belonging In “Remember Yakin? [31] However, Susan Lee Johnson argues that it was the tentacles of capitalism that determined who could and ultimately would migrate to the California gold fields. Capitalist market economies around the globe linked people, places, and products together in the search for wealth; those individuals who ventured to the California gold fields were grappling with monumental economic changes. [32] During the post-Reconstruction period in the South, a mass exodus of former slaves was launched with the hopes of Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays, evading the cultures of terrorism and poverty that characterized their existence after 1877. Beginning in R Murrow Essay 1878, thousands of And Cons Testing Essays, #8216;exodusters#8217; migrated to Kansas in the hopes of finding their personal Liberia or Canaan. This movement was one of the first migrations of The Abolishment of Apartheid from Essay, African Americans westward and Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing as such, it is an excellent example of the convergence of different racial and cultural groups. According to the historian Nell Irvin Painter, exodusters encountered discrimination in Kansas; however, by 1900, blacks in Christina "Goblin Market" Essay the state were generally better off economically than their southern counterparts were.

As far as their impact on Kansas communities, Painter argues that the biggest fear many whites held was that Anglo-American migrants would choose to settle in Nebraska or Minnesota once word got out that thousands of former slaves had taken up residence as farmers and And Cons Of Standardized laborers in Kansas. [33] Irish migrations to the copper town of Butte, Montana followed the same general pattern of gerald graff hidden, other mining communities in terms of push and pull factors; however, there were some unique aspects, including the And Cons Of Standardized Essays fact that the "Goblin owner of the Anaconda Mine was born in Ireland. In an article on the Irish in Butte, David M. Emmons argues that the Irish in Pros And Cons Testing Essays this mining community were representative of migrants who wanted to gain portable wealth and move on, perhaps back to their hometown or country of origin. Rossetti’s Market" Essay? [34] Josef J. Barton demonstrates that European immigrants in the American West also sought to recreate and maintain their traditional ways of life in this country without the Of Standardized intention of going back to their home countries, which was impossible for some groups. [35] Barton#8217;s study of Czech farmers in south Texas details the steps taken by this group to maintain decent and uk secure lives. The history of migration in the American West demonstrates that the 20 th century saw more migration, in pure numbers, than did the 19 th century. Migration to the East Bay in California has been well documented and discussed by Pros And Cons Testing historians. Marilynn S. Johnson traces the apathy development of the East Bay during World War II with an emphasis on Pros And Cons Testing how government spending transformed the region. Johnson focuses on the convergence of different races, genders, and samsung generations as new migrants mixed with old settlers and Pros And Cons Testing Essays as all of these groups worked and lived in the same area. [36] The tension between newcomers and old time residents was palpable, as old timers attempted (successfully) to shape public policy decisions on everything from "Goblin Market" housing, to And Cons Of Standardized Essays land use and the prosecution of criminals with the political apathy definition goal of maintaining traditional social patterns and limiting the Of Standardized Essays influence of Audience in “Remember example, migrants. Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo provides an in depth examination of African American female migrants to the East Bay during World War II. She argues that migrant women were critical agents in Pros Testing Essays the larger migration and settlement process. [37] Many minority migrant groups faced racism and discrimination as they intermingled with Anglo-American migrants and the older inhabitants.

Santangelo argues that black women were essential to the process of devising coping strategies that enabled themselves and minority males to adjust to this difficult aspect of settlement. Central to this strategy were transplanted Southern values, including economic autonomy, hard work, education, worship, family ties, charity, and independent self-help institutions. The hard work of black female migrants resulted in the formation of viable communities that continue to exist today as well as social problems that continue to demand resolution. In Something in Edward R Murrow Essay the Soil , Limerick discusses how people around the globe see the American West as a place where one can go to Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays escape complexity. Many individuals, known as tourists, explore the political apathy definition West hoping to find this romanticized and mythologized past still in existence. The reality of the situation, of course, is that the West and its inhabitants are as morally complex as any other region and group of people. This section will explore the ways in which tourism in the American West both masks and exemplifies moral complexity. Hal K. Rothman sets the tone for the history of tourism in Pros the West by providing a language that gives meaning and coherence to the activities related to tourism. In his book Devil#8217;s Bargains , Rothman argues that the costs of tourism far outweigh the benefits. Market"? The zeal of many western civic leaders who have focused on tourism as their salvation from financial collapse belies a truth about Of Standardized Essays tourism, that the industry transforms local culture into something new and South Essay foreign and all the while it may or may not rescue the local economy it was supposed to save. [38] Modern tourism conceals the complex nature of most western states in several ways.

First, and this is one of the primary functions of tourism, romanticized visions of the past are created and marketed to tourists. Rothman argues that the restrictive building codes in Santa Fe and the romantic imagery of southwestern tribes are examples of how people and places were commodified for the tourist trade at the expense of Pros And Cons Of Standardized, understanding. Second, the actual costs of tourism are often hidden from tourists who were led to believe that as a region, the West was both unformed and malleable. Therefore, according to Rothman, the West served as a canvas on which the R Murrow Essay new nation was constructed following the Civil War. The act of tourism in the West would enable some of the voids regarding the And Cons Of Standardized Essays idea of America and its institutions to be filled. [39] Some Western towns have turned to gambling tourism to Christina Rossetti’s save themselves from Of Standardized Testing Essays financial collapse, which in itself has been a gamble. In communities that traditionally relied on entertaining seasonal tourists with their historic pasts, gambling was seen as a year-round, stable, and dynamic solution to their problems. [40] The struggle to survive illustrates the political definition complexity of the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing American West today. R Murrow? Far from being the romanticized West that many tourists envision encountering and exploring, communities throughout the region continue to struggle with the collapse of the industries responsible for their creation, e.g., mining, and the success of tourism, which has greatly added to the complexity of existence in tourist towns. Leah Dilworth confronts the romantic mythology of western tourism in her book, Imagining Indians in the Southwest . Dilworth#8217;s work focuses on the idea of Pros Testing Essays, ethnic tourism, specifically involving Native Americans from the Southwest and the ways in apathy which these individuals have been commodified and simplified for tourist consumption. [41] According to Dilworth, the quest encounters with Native Americans during tours of the Southwest is part of the Essays search for simplicity or authenticity that the primitive represents in American culture; however, that simplistic past is unattainable. Tourism constructs a simplified version of history and contemporary life in such a way that it is visible but is never attainable. In the search for what she refers to as the #8220;imperialist nostalgia,#8221; in other words, the Africa Essay search for And Cons Of Standardized Essays a simplistic lifestyle that Americans are complicit in destroying, realistic Indians are undetectable. Audience In “Remember Yakin? Complexity is difficult to commodify and package for tourist consumption.

The history of mining in the American West illustrates the theme of continuity in several important ways. First, the volume of minerals extracted in Pros Essays Western mines increased during the 20 th century. Second, communities and governmental agencies are still dealing with the environmental impact of 19th and 20th century mining operations. Finally, the mining industry continues to play an gerald, important role in communities throughout the Of Standardized American West. These are some of the key connections in the unbroken historical narrative of the of Apartheid South American West. Histories of 19 th century mining usually emphasize several key themes, including the role of technology in the extractive process, economic and political struggles, and the transition miners undergo from gold-seekers to wage-laborers as the placer gold in streams plays out. And Cons Of Standardized? In his book Mining Frontiers of the Far West , Rodman W. Paul examines both the technological and economic aspects of mining rushes in several western states. [42] Paul examines the mining movement in its totality through the identification of two unifying forces that occurred across widely scattered mining settlements. The first of these, the role of miners as they moved from graff intellectualism discovery to discovery and in the process bringing with them extractive techniques and social relationships for the creation of new communities. Paul acknowledges the fact that the development of mining communities set the stage for the displacement of indigenous groups, people of color, and whites; however, it was Elliott West who finally added the And Cons story of the displaced to Paul#8217;s narrative.

Paul continues to develop his theme relating to political apathy definition the impact of new technology on the industry in Of Standardized Essays his final book, The Far West and the Great Plains in apathy Transition . In this excellent book, Paul examines the era of rapid change in the West ushered in with the mining advance. The impact of new technologies on the mining industry is illustrated by his analysis of hydraulic mining and the changes it brought to placer mining, usually the first stage of mining before more capital intensive hard rock mining begins. Hydraulic mining enabled massive amounts of dirt to be worked on Pros And Cons Testing a fast scale; however, it brought with it environmental destruction and waste. [43] As the surface deposits played out, subsurface deposits were developed; this combination of new technology and intellectualism the necessity for capital in hard rock mining turned gold seekers into wage laborers. [44] Historians have continued to analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution not only on the mining industry but also on miners. Of Standardized? In his book Hard Rock Epic , Mark Wyman focuses broadly on Western miners as they experienced economic and technological transformations during the Industrial Revolution. [45] Wyman examines the response of miners to the introduction of and Belonging The Titans” Yakin example, a wide range of new technologies, such as the Burleigh drill. [46] The author reveals that the romanticized image of the miner is completely out of Of Standardized Testing Essays, tune with the reality of the situation, which by the late 19 th century was characterized by industrialized techniques and wage-laborers. Mining corporations developed during the Industrial Revolution in this country and most came to dominate the communities and states in which their mines were located. One example of this historical era that straddles the 19 th and 20 th centuries is Butte and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company. [47] Michael Malone#8217;s narrative focuses on the perspective of competing mine owners within the Butte area as they struggled for control of the copper during the late 19 th century. Audience And Belonging By Boaz? Malone argues that miners benefited tremendously in the four-way struggle for power early on; however, with the consolidation of Butte copper mines under the Amalgamated Holding Company in 1899, that all changed. And Cons Testing? [48] Not only were miners forced to adapt to new technologies that rendered their skills unnecessary (e.g., hard rock miners) but they were also forced to adapt to new corporate management structures of concentrated power. In such a relationship, the Edward new face of Pros Of Standardized Essays, mining in Butte was one in gerald hidden which the workers and Of Standardized Essays the people themselves, #8220;lay at the mercy of a much more powerful and less sensitive corporation.#8221; [49] Historians of 20 th century Western mining continued to chart the development of the industry and to demonstrate the continuity of the historical narrative long after the closing of the frontier in 1890.

Historians continue to gerald hidden intellectualism examine relationships between workers and owners, the influence of both groups in terms of economics, politics, and culture, as well as the impact of Pros And Cons Testing, changing federal policies on mining communities, among others. James W. Byrkit, in his book Forging the definition Copper Collar , examines the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Essays mining industry in Christina Rossetti’s Market" Essay Bisbee, Arizona during the first two decades of the 20 th century. [50] Bisbee serves as the backdrop to his argument regarding the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays role of eastern power in sponsoring and manipulating economic, political, social and cultural life in the American West. Byrkit#8217;s book details the Christina Essay ways in which Arizona#8217;s early statehood period was dominated politically and economically within a colonizer/colonized relationship. This book represents an excellent narrative bridge between the Industrial Revolution and the Wagner Act of the New Deal, which gave labor the right to organize. And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays? Reflecting the new western history#8217;s desire to uncover the history of previously ignored groups, Mary Murphy#8217;s Mining Cultures explores the social clubs, barrooms, sporting life, and other aspects of public leisure within Butte. [51] Similar to graff intellectualism the narrative told by Byrkit, Murphy argues that during the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays interwar years, labor lost a great deal of their power. They occupied a world in which their working lives, political choices, and economic outlooks were constrained by the Anaconda Company. However, Murphy argues that Butte was different from other mining towns in which the controlling company would build towns and seek to political definition control the morals of the workers. Because of this, a male-centered social landscape developed during the late 19 th century in Butte. The changes to that landscape are the focus of this book, as Murphy discusses the re-creation of Butte as part of the struggle between women and men to adjust to new gender roles after World War I. [52] That Western mining is an example of continuity should be clear by now, especially when the history of uranium mining communities are examined and compared to older mining communities. In his book Yellowcake Towns , Michael Amundson analyzes and compares the impact of changing federal policies on four uranium mining and Essays milling communities in the states of Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado. [53] As Amundson argues, yellowcake towns are excellent examples of continuity in the West for graff several reasons, including the remoteness of the places in which the mining took place and the lack of control those distant communities had on the trade networks that controlled the boom and Pros Testing Essays bust nature of the industry. Similarly, male prospectors often first settled yellowcake town sites and only later would their families join them.

In short, Amundson argues, #8220;the persistence of continuity suggests that as unique as the history of uranium mining and yellowcake towns appears, strong undercurrents link them to major themes in the history of the American West.#8221; [54] The theme of conquest includes a wide range of behaviors, including the conquest of the natural environment and extraction of resources. A definition of resources could include animals, crops, and minerals; the cattle, logging, and hidden intellectualism copper mining industries are examples of the diversity of conquests that have taken place in the American West. Conquest also refers to the colonial dominance of minority groups in the West, including Asians, Mexicans, African Americans, and Native Americans. The conquest of humans in the American West will be the focus of this section of the And Cons Of Standardized essay. In his groundbreaking work of Native American history, The Roots of Dependency , Richard White examines the economic structures of three tribes in order to better understand why their economies eventually failed to meet their basic subsistence needs by the late 19 th century. White studies agricultural systems, hunting methods, as well as their work as ranchers in attempting to explain the graff hidden intellectualism economic conquest of the Choctaw, Pawnee, and Navajo. Pros Of Standardized Testing? [55] The conclusion which White draws from his examination of the changing Indian economies is that attempts by whites to bring indigenous resources, land and political definition labor into the market was the primary cause of the Testing resulting economic dependency and conquest by the United States. In arriving at this conclusion, White attacks the traditional belief that military supremacy and force were responsible for these changes.

Jeffrey Ostler#8217;s work on Essay example the history of Lakota-U.S. interactions during the 19 th century, culminating in the massacre at Wounded Knee in December of 1890 provides an excellent example of the Pros And Cons Testing Essays new western history#8217;s focus on conquest and indigenous perspectives. [56] Ostler utilizes colonialism as a lens through which to view Indian agency and resistance at a time when the Lakota were experiencing many political, social, and cultural changes. Ostler explains the development of and Belonging in “Remember The Titans” by Boaz Essay example, U.S. Pros Essays? colonialism among the Lakota while also discussing the of Apartheid from South ways that the Lakota developed policies and thereby were not simply acted upon by outside influences. An example of Lakota agency was the way the tribe reacted to the invasion of their lands by Euro-American settlers using the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. According to Ostler, the Lakota began to feel the indirect effects of agrarian expansion in the 1840s as settlers and cattle destroyed or consumed the food supply of indigenous animals, especially the buffalo. In retaliation, the Lakota decided to charge settlers for the damage they were doing to their economy; this was a good policy in terms of holding those responsible for the damages responsible for fixing them, but the normal reaction of the United States was to call out the cavalry and attack local Lakota villages for #8220;harassing#8221; settlers. By discussing the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing various ways in which the Lakota formulated responses to colonialism and attempts to conquer their land, Ostler strips away the R Murrow myth that their demise as a power on Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays the northern plains was inevitable. Tearing down myths is one of the goals of the new western history and political definition this book is an excellent example of how it should be accomplished. Conquest and dispossession also occurred during the early conservation efforts within the American West, but for reasons other than seizing land for agriculture or ranching. In his excellent book, Dispossessing the Wilderness , Mark David Spence states that wilderness preservation went #8220;hand in hand with native dispossession#8221;. [57] Spence#8217;s argument is Of Standardized Testing, based on the experiences of a handful of Indian tribes that were dispossessed from certain parts of their traditional homelands by the federal government so that national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite and Glacier) could be established.

These tribes include the Bannock, Shoshone, Crow, Yosemite, and Blackfeet. Spence argues that #8220;uninhabited wilderness had to be created before it could be preserved#8221;. [58] The reason that these tribes were dispossessed had a great deal to do with changing American perceptions about wilderness, including debates on how to define it and definition how it should be preserved. According to Spence, in the first half of the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays 19 th century, nascent conservationists such as George Catlin, Washington Irving, Henry David Thoreau, and John Audubon believed that Indians and wilderness areas should be set aside from the influence of civilization. Spence explains that antebellum America did not conceive of wilderness and Indians as separate, but saw them as fundamentally linked. [59] All of that changed, however, in the years following the Civil War. Spence believes that frontier hostilities between the army and Indian tribes located throughout the Great Plains was one cause for America#8217;s changing perceptions of Indians to the popular belief that they were #8220;evil savages#8221;. No longer seen as living in harmony with nature, due to the fact that they were impeding America#8217;s manifest destiny, setting fires in forests, and hunting game in areas intended for apathy protection, conservationists of the second half of the 19 th century began to reconsider the Of Standardized Essays ideas of earlier conservationists, that is, placing Indians in protected wilderness areas. At the same time that Indians were forced off of their traditional homelands onto Edward R Murrow, reservations in order to make the land uninhabited so that it could be preserved, a myth began to circulate that Indians had not inhabited the now-protected wilderness areas located throughout the West for decades. Spence provides evidence linking Indian tribes to each of the three national parks discussed in this book, detailing how that land was used over several centuries and And Cons Testing Essays the ways that the various tribes attempted to preserve their treaty rights to practice religious customs and economic tasks in those parks today, long after their ancestors were dispossessed. Paradigm III: World-Systems Analysis.

The final paradigm examined in this paper is world-systems analysis. Immanuel Wallerstein developed this mode of analysis during the 1970s; however, within the discipline of history, William Robbins has been one of the most vocal advocates for its use and acceptance. According to Wallerstein, at its most basic level, world-systems analysis characterizes the samsung uk global world-system in which we live as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. And Cons Testing Essays? In his terminology, Wallerstein describes a #8216;core#8217; as a developed, industrialized part of the world and a #8216;periphery#8217; as an R Murrow, underdeveloped, raw materials exporting, poor part of the world. Core regions exploit periphery regions through the And Cons Of Standardized functions of the market. Audience The Titans” By Boaz Essay? [60] In a series of books and And Cons Testing articles, Robbins has built an interpretive model of history which states that the best way to understand change and definition interactions in the American West is through a capitalist framework. The key is his definition of capitalism, which he defines as a system of social relations expressed in characteristic class structures, modes of consciousness, patterns of authority, and relations of power. [61] Robbins#8217; work bears some similarities and shares some intersections with both old and new western historians. Like new western historians, Robbins rejects the idea of American exceptionalism. Pros And Cons Testing? [62] Robbins sees the region as a unique arena for scholarly endeavor, insisting that the American West can be seen as a prototype for modern capitalism. [63] In his emphasis on the association between capitalism and its revolutionary consequences for a particular place, Robbins#8217; work can be seen to closely resemble that of Donald Worster, ( Dust Bowl , Rivers of Empire ); William Cronon, ( Changes in the Land , Nature#8217;s Metropolis ); and Richard White, ( Roots of Dependency ). However, Robbins pursues a global perspective on Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin Market" events in the American West by advancing two interrelated themes throughout much of his work.

First, the history of the And Cons Essays West should be examined as a part of the worldwide expansion of corporate capitalism. Second, outside managers, financiers, and capitalists often dictated the fates of western communities and determined the fortunes of western residents. In short, Robbins is graff, arguing that the Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays development of the West is the R Murrow Essay story of the region#8217;s integration into a global economic system. As Robbins explains, the fur trade, settler movement, mineral rushes, and Of Standardized Essays the transportation revolution were all manifestations of the influence of global capitalism. In seeking to break from the exceptionalist narrative of western history, Robbins again finds common ground with new western historians. Like Limerick and White, Robbins discovers a West characterized by relationships of power and dependency. The celebrated freedom and autonomy of the West, if it existed, was the political definition province of the few, of those individuals with power, influence, and especially capital. The adoption and use of Pros And Cons Testing, world-systems analysis in the writing of western history has produced several admirable volumes, two of Audience in “Remember The Titans” by Boaz, which will be discussed in this section. The first, William G. Robbins#8217; Colony and Empire has already been briefly mentioned. Robbins#8217; analysis stretches from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, and Of Standardized Essays takes on the entire West, from the 98th meridian to the Pacific, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, but inclusive of the Mexican and Canadian borderlands. This is a macrocosmic study divided into four parts in which the Christina "Goblin author makes his case by Pros outlining the complexity of capitalist networks in the West, the relationship of hinterlands to metropolises, and of eastern and foreign capital to and Belonging The Titans” by Boaz Essay western development.

As Robbins makes clear, part of his rationale for writing this book is that scholars have yet to forge an analytical tool to explain the transformation of the American West from an area dominated by Pros And Cons Testing Essays pre-industrial societies to samsung promotions uk a region that is an integrated segment of a modern world capitalist system. [64] The basic, broad framework advanced by Of Standardized Essays Robbins reads as follows: the penetration of promotions uk, market forces in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries, the subjugation and colonization of native people between 1840 and 1890, the re-peopling of the western landscape during that same period, and the progressive integration of the West into national and international exchange relationships. [65] In his book, Capitalism on the Frontier , Carroll Van West provides a microcosmic analysis of the Clark#8217;s Fork Bottom region of the Yellowstone River Valley; a 25 mile long region including the city of Billings, Montana. The focus of Van West#8217;s study are the revolutionary impacts of capitalism in transforming the landscape from Pros Testing Essays a pre-industrial site of definition, economic activity to its absorption into the mainstream of American capitalism. Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays? [66] There are parallels between the works of Robbins and Van West, including their examination of the impact of outside capital on the West. Also, both authors chronicle boom-bust cycles and apathy document the late 19 th century transition from an individualistic capitalism to an impersonal corporate capitalism by the turn of the 20 th century. And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays? However, Van West#8217;s narrative actively seeks out the human element, the people, institutions, and economic forces that guided the Christina "Goblin Market" Essay settlement and development of Billings through the And Cons Of Standardized Essays end of the century. [67] When Frederick Jackson Turner wrote his famous essay in from South Africa Essay 1893, he was seeking to explain the Of Standardized development of Rossetti’s Market" Essay, American institutions and history, not the American West specifically. Such a lofty goal, broad historical synthesis, omitted some groups and privileged others. The work of new social historians during the 1960s can be seen as an attempt to broaden the And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays focus of historians by increasing the number of research lenses to include topics such as race, gender, and Christina Essay class. While new social history theories were brought to And Cons Testing Essays the field of western history only in the 1980s, well after other regional specialists began using them, the impact was widely and Essay immediately felt. The final paradigm discussed in this essay, world-systems analysis, provides a further conceptual tool for western historians, capitalism. Supporters of this model argue that the margins and peripheries of our stories lack coherence because they lack an interpretive synthesis to unify them. [68] Both new western historians and supporters of world-systems analysis argue that we need to move beyond American exceptionalism as a form of interpretive synthesis.

The frontier thesis encourages triumphalist narratives and obscures the connections between regions and nations. The theoretical lenses used in new western history and world-systems analysis for the production of historical narratives should provide a powerful new synthetic model to challenge American exceptionalism. [1] Gerald D. Nash, Creating the West: Historical Interpretations, 1890-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 6-7. [3] Ray Allen Billington, ed., The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 9-20. [4] William Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 18 (Apr., 1987): 157-176. [5] Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in the Soil: Legacies and And Cons Of Standardized Testing Reckonings in the New West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000). [6] Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Edward Essay Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; 171. [7] William R. Jacobs, John W. Pros Testing Essays? Caughey, and Joe B. Frantz, Turner, Bolton, and Webb: Three Historians of the American Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), vi 83-85. [8] Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931), 273-280. [13] Richard Etulain, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 320. [15] Gene M. Gressley, ed., Old West/New West: Quo Vadis? (Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company, 1994), 3-4. [16] William Cronon, et al., ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America#8217;s Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1992), 6. [18] Michael Steiner, #8220;From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History,#8221; The Pacific Historical Revew 64 (Nov., 1995): 500. [19] Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Christina Essay? Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward A New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 27. Pros And Cons Testing? [20] Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217;: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991). [21] Donald Worster, Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). [28] See, for example, her books, The Legacy of Conquest and Edward R Murrow Essay Something in the Soil . Pros Of Standardized Testing? [29] Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of Market" Essay, My Own#8217; , 183-211. [32] Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000), 58-59. Pros And Cons Of Standardized? [33] Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1979), 258-260. [34] David M. Emmons, #8220;Irish Miners: From the Emerald Isle to Copper Butte,#8221; in European Immigrants in gerald the American West: Community Histories , ed.

Frederick C. Luebke (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998), 49-64. [35] Josef J. Barton, #8220;Czech Farmers and Mexican Laborers in South Texas,#8221; in Ethnicity on the Great Plains , ed. And Cons Testing Essays? Frederick C. Luebke (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 190-209. [36] Marilynn S. Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996) . [37] Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). [38] Hal K. Rothman, Devil#8217;s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 10. [40] Katherine Jensen and Audie Blevins, The Last Gamble: Betting on The Abolishment of Apartheid from South the Future in Four Rocky Mountain Mining Towns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), 72. [41] Leah Dilworth, Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent Visions of a Primitive Past (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 78-82. [42] Rodman W. Paul and Elliott West, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880 (Albuquerque: University of Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing, New Mexico Press, 2001). [43] Rodman W. Paul, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition, 1859-1900 (New York: Harper and Christina Rossetti’s "Goblin Essay Row, 1988), 35-38. [44] Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988), 106. Pros And Cons Testing? [45] Mark Wyman, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and R Murrow the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). [47] Michael P. Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays? Malone, The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on R Murrow the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 (Seattle: University of Of Standardized Testing, Washington Press, 1981). [50] James W. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona#8217;s Labor-Management War of 1901-1921 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982). [51] Mary Murphy, Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997). [53] Michael Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002). [55] Richard White, The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983). [56] Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and Audience Essay example U.S.

Colonialism From Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). [57] Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and Pros Testing the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3. [60] Immanuel Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2004). Audience In “Remember By Boaz? [61] William G. Robbins, Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994). [62] William G. Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 20 (Nov., 1989): 429-449. [63] Robbins, Colony and Empire , 19. [64] Robbins, Colony and Empire , 11-12. [65] Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; 434. [66] Carroll Van West, Capitalism on the Frontier: Billings and the Yellowstone Valley in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 2. [68] William G. Pros And Cons Testing Essays? Robbins, #8220;In Pursuit of Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Audience example Knowing the American West,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1999): 277-293.

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I find that I learn as much from my summer jobs as I do from my academic studies. For example, during the And Cons, summer of 1986, while working for IBM in Boca Raton, Florida, I gained a great deal of practical experience in Edward the field of electronic circuit logic and driver design. When I returned to Pros Of Standardized, school in the fall and took Computer Hardware Design, I found that my experience with IBM had thoroughly prepared me for the subject. Having said all this, I realize that your first consideration in hiring an applicant must not be the Edward R Murrow, potential educational experience HAL can provide, but the And Cons Of Standardized Essays, skills and services the applicant has to offer. I hope the experience and education described in my resume suggest how I might be of service to HAL. I welcome the opportunity to discuss with you how I might best assist HAL in fulfilling its present corporate needs. I will be available for employment from May 14 through August 31, 2002. Please let me know what summer employment opportunities are available at HAL for someone with my education, experience, and interests.

You can reach me at the above address or by phone at (518) 271-0000. Thank you for graff hidden your consideration. Developed by Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing The Center for Edward Essay Communication Practices at Pros And Cons Testing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. A resume is a brief summary of your abilities, education, experience, and skills. Its main task is to convince prospective employers to contact you. A resume has one purpose: to get you a job interview . Resumes must do their work quickly. Employers or personnel officers may look through hundreds of applications and may spend only a few seconds reviewing your resume. To get someone to look at it longer, your resume must quickly convey that you are capable and samsung promotions uk, competent enough to be worth interviewing. Pros And Cons! The more thoroughly you prepare your resume now, the more likely someone is to read it later.

This guide, Preparing a Resume, will be useful if youre writing your first resume or want to hidden intellectualism, analyze the effectiveness of your current one. The Center for Communication Practices can also help you draft your resume and cover letters, and Of Standardized, can give you sample resumes and related handouts. Simply drop by; no appointment is necessary. This document, which is political definition divided into eight separate sections, can be read in And Cons Of Standardized two different ways. Rossetti’s "Goblin Essay! You can either read it all the way through, as you would a paper version, or you can click on any of the links listed below to jump ahead to Essays, a particular section. Gather and Check All Necessary Information. Write down headings such as EDUCATION, EXPERIENCE, HONORS, SKILLS, ACTIVITIES. Beneath each heading, jot down the following information: EDUCATION usually means post-secondary and can include special seminars, summer school, or night school as well as college and university. If you are just starting college, you can include high school as well.

List degrees and month/year obtained or expected; names and locations of schools; major and minor, if any; grade point average. A brief summary of important courses youve taken might also be helpful. EXPERIENCE includes full-time paid jobs, academic research projects, internships or co-op positions, part-time jobs, or volunteer work. List the month/years you worked, position, name and location of employer or place, and gerald graff, responsibilities you had. As you describe your experiences, ask yourself questions like these: Have I invented, discovered, coordinated, organized, or directed anything professionally or for my community? Do I meet deadlines consistently?

Am I a good communicator? Do I enjoy teamwork? Even if youre new to a field, you arent necessarily starting from scratch. HONORS . Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays! List any academic awards (scholarships, fellowships, honors list), professional awards or recognition, or community awards (i.e. for uk athletic skills). SKILLS . List computer languages and software, research, laboratory, teaching or tutoring, communication, leadership, or athletic, among others. ACTIVITIES . List academic, professional, or community organizations in Of Standardized which you hold office or are currently a member; list professional and community activities, including volunteer work. R Murrow Essay! Listing extra-curricular activities or hobbies is optional. After you have all this information down, check it for accuracy. Youll need full names, in Testing Essays some cases full addresses, correct and consistent dates, and correct spellings. Match Your Skills and Experience with an Employers Needs. POSITION: What kind of position do you want for South Essay this job-search?

Make notes. Now match your wishes up with positions that are actually available. Pros And Cons Of Standardized! You can get this information through postings, ads, personal contacts, or your own research. Also, the definition, Rensselaer Center for Career and Professional Development (CCPD) can help you with job-search techniques. The CCPD offers workshops, materials, personal assistance, and Pros Essays, on-campus recruiting. It also coordinates a Focus Program to help freshmen, sophomores, and juniors find out about their field from Rensselaer alumni. EMPLOYER: For a certain position, what aspects of your education, experience, or skills will be most attractive to that employer? List SPECIFIC coursework, areas of specialty, specific skills, or knowledge that you think would interest the employer.

Highlight Details That Demonstrate Your Capabilities. Look over what youve written and try to select details of your education, experience, honors, skills, and gerald graff intellectualism, activities that match an employers needs in a few important areas. Organize the Resume Effectively. PERSONAL INFORMATION: Top center of first page . Name (no title); addresses; phone numbers; e-mail and/or fax addresses (optional); citizenship if applicable. NOTE: A potential employer has no legal right to request information about Pros age, sex, race, religion, marital status, health, physical appearance, or personal habits. Dont include such information on Edward, your resume. EDUCATION: Often comes first in Pros Of Standardized student resumes, especially if it is a strong asset. EXPERIENCE: Here, you can use one of Rossetti’s Market" two formats : Functional : To emphasize skills and talents, cluster your experience under headings that highlight these skills: for Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays ex.: leadership, research, computers, etc. This format can be helpful if you have little relevant job experience.

Chronological : To emphasize work experience, list jobs beginning with the most recent . Write all job descriptions in parallel. phrases, using ACTION verbs List the most important responsibilities. or successes first List similar tasks together Emphasize collaborative or group-related. AWARDS/HONORS: Use reverse chronological order; include titles, places, dates. ACTIVITIES: Generally, list hobbies, travel, or languages only if they relate to your job interests. In some cases, you may wish to emphasize your willingness to travel or relocate. REFERENCES: You need not put these on your resume. Gerald Graff Intellectualism! Instead, you can prepare a separate list of references, with complete name, title, company name, address, and Testing, telephone numbers for each individual. Usually, you give this list to prospective employers after your interview. CREATING YOUR DRAFT: for positions within your field.

TYPE each entry in a format close to. the one you want to gerald hidden, use for your resume. LENGTH: for many resumes, two pages. is the maximum length (NOTE: an academic resume or curriculum. vita is Testing Essays often at least five pages long). If you are considering listing your participation in gerald graff a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course), you could add that experience to Pros Testing Essays, your resume or CV in a section for Employment Related Activities or Professional Development. Audience The Titans” By Boaz Yakin Example! Not everything needs to be on a two-page resume, but there may be reasons to list items like this if you have room for them. For more, see Consider Word Choice Carefully. In a resume, you need to Testing, sound positive and confident: neither too aggressive, nor overly modest. The Abolishment Of Apartheid! The following words and phrases are intended as suggestions for thinking about your experience and abilities.

Whatever your final word choices are, they should accurately describe you your skills, talents, and experience. Choose ACTIVE VERBS that describe your skills, abilities, and accomplishments. Examples: I can contribute, enjoy creating, have experience in organizing. . Pros Of Standardized Testing! . While at X Company, I administered, coordinated, directed, participated in. Below is Edward R Murrow a list of such verbs: accomplish; achieve; analyze; adapt; balance; collaborate; coordinate; communicate; compile; conduct; contribute; complete; create; delegate direct; establish; expand; improve; implement; invent; increase; initiate; instruct; lead; organize; participate; perform; present; propose; reorganize; research; set up; supervise; support; train; travel; work (effectively, with others) NOTE: You can change the And Cons Testing Essays, forms of any of these verbs to stress different aspects of your abilities and samsung promotions, experience: organize == organized, organizing, organization. Choose ADJECTIVES and NOUNS that describe yourself positively and accurately: able to; administrative; analytical; (fluently) bilingual; broad scope; capable; communication skills; collaboration; collaborative; consistent; competent; complete; creative; dedicated; diversified; effective; experienced; efficient; extensive; exceptional; flexible; global; handle stress; imaginative; intensive; in-depth; innovative; integrated; able to listen; motivated; multilingual; multi-disciplinary; a negotiator; other cultures; reliable; responsible; a supervisor; teamwork; well- traveled; work well with. Ask Other People to Comment on And Cons Of Standardized Testing, Your Resume. WE STRONGLY RECOMMEND that you have an Essay, advisor, potential employer, or someone in your field critique your resume. For more help, ask: NOTE: People may offer many different opinions.

Use your own judgment and be open-minded about constructive criticism. Make the Final Product Presentable. Use a computer and high-quality (preferably laser) printer. If you dont have a computer or laser printer, you should either have your resume professionally produced, or use the And Cons Of Standardized Essays, resources that Rensselaer has to offer: IBM/PCs, UNIX, and gerald intellectualism, SUN workstations.

on campus . Depending on Pros And Cons, which system you use, you have. some choice of fonts, limited layout capability (i.e. creating. borders, boxes, and columns), and access to laser printers. Computer labs/printers closest. to the Writing Center . Windows 98 workstations (room. Hold your resume at gerald graff hidden, arms length and see how it looks.

Is the page too busy with different type styles, sizes, lines, or boxes? Is the Pros And Cons Of Standardized Essays, information spaced well, not crowded on samsung uk, the page? Is there too much white space? Is important information quick and easy to find? Name is at Pros Testing Essays, the top of the page: highlighted. by slightly larger typesize, bolding, and/or underlining Address and phone number(s) are complete. and correct, with zip and area codes, and are well-placed. in relation to name All entries highlight a capability or.

accomplishment Descriptions use active verbs, and verb. tense is gerald intellectualism consistent; current job is in present tense; past. jobs are in past tense Repetition of words or phrases is kept. to a minimum Capitalization, punctuation, and date. formats are consistent There are NO typos or spelling.

Your best assets, whether education, experience, or skills, are listed first The page can be easily reviewed: categories. are clear, text is indented The dates of employment are easy to. find and Essays, consistently formatted Your name is printed at the top of each. No more than two typestyles appear; typestyles are conservative Bolding, italics, and capitalization. are used consistently and in support of the Audience in “Remember The Titans” by Boaz Yakin Essay example, information. structure Margins and line spacing keep the Testing Essays, page.

from looking too crowded Printing is on one side of the The Abolishment from South Essay, sheet. only, on Of Standardized Testing Essays, high-quality bondwhite or off-white (i.e. beige. or ivory) The reproduction is Christina Rossetti’s Essay good, with no blurring, stray marks, or faint letters The right side of the page is. in ragged format, not right-justified. Right justification. creates awkward white spaces. Now youre done! Just one more suggestion: If you are sending your resume to a prospective employer, youll probably also have to include a separate cover letter. Pros Testing Essays! This is usually one page long. The letter indicates your interest in hidden a particular company or position, summarizes the most important aspects of your education and Pros, experience, and and Belonging The Titans” Yakin example, lets the Of Standardized Testing Essays, employer know where and when you can be contacted for Rossetti’s "Goblin an interview.

The Writing Center and Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing Essays, the Career Development Center can give you more information about effective cover letters. Developed by The Center for Communication Practices at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. The staff at the Center for Communication Practices is composed of samsung graduate and And Cons Of Standardized Essays, undergraduate students who enjoy reading and responding to writing, oral presentations, and political, multimodal projects from all disciplines! All of the consultants who work at the CCP have significant experience in composing many types of texts. All undergraduate consultants have also excelled in a 4-credit course, Writing and Of Standardized Testing Essays, Response , that has prepared them to read and graff, respond to Pros And Cons Testing Essays, a wide range of texts. Each consultant may have unique experience with specific types of communication.

Look below to read our consultant profiles before scheduling an R Murrow, appointment: you may find someone especially well-suited to your needs! DirectorDr. Barbara Lewis: Barbara is the director of the CCP and enjoys the challenge of reading technical texts from all different fields. She also loves reading and Pros Of Standardized Testing Essays, talking about papers written for Humanities courses, and has quite a bit of experience reading resumes, cover letters, and graduate school application essays. When shes not working in the CCP, Barbara teaches writing courses in the Department of South Africa Communication and Media.