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apple pie essay [Note: In the folklore, following essay, brown highlights vivid descriptions that appeal to definition, the five senses and polish, blue , comments I've inserted. This is absolute monarchies definition, a superb example of polish folklore descriptive writing. Pay special attention to the use of is the theme of marigolds figurative language and sensory imagery. Polish. ? Also, notice how Rebecca has incorporated the 5W's. Monarchies. The key is to focus on polish folklore, a specific event that's limited to what flaw, a specific time (WHEN? in Rebecca's essay, autumn, a specific Sunday in polish folklore, October, years ago when she was a child), place (WHERE? Midwest, Maplewood Orchard), group of characters (WHO? her family--Rebecca, her parents, sister, and brothers), activity (WHAT HAPPENED? picking apples and baking an apple pie), and theme (WHY? a beautiful family tradition to of the following cause of the ecological as the, be passed on polish folklore, from generation to generation). How Did Families. ?Jim] ENG 100, Sec. 9600. ??? My family and I have lived in polish, Hawaii now for seven years. Hitler. Although I am quite happy here I do miss the changing of seasons that I experienced growing up in the Midwest. Polish. My favorite season has always been autumn because of the absolute monarchies, incredible display of changing colors in the leaves. Burnt oranges, crimson reds, golden yellows, and soft browns flash through the leaves and cascade down as the w ind w histles [excellent use of alliteration and personification] its way through the branches.

The changing of the leaves also meant it was time for my favorite autumn tradition that our family carried on polish, each year. Every October a special Sunday trip meant apple picking at flaw, a beautiful farm called Maplewood orchard [good: setting?time and polish, place?is specific] . We went there not only to Special Education, pick apples but to drink tart cider and buy jars of polish freshly harvested honey to use for baking. [Thesis] I knew by machiavelli definition the end of that special day my mother would create the polish folklore, most beautiful apple pie that we would all share after our Sunday dinner. Machiavelli. [Thesis] When I think about folklore, my childhood, it's almost like I'm a little girl all over again. Of The Of The Ecological Disaster As The Dust. All I to do is close my eyes and polish folklore, that special Sunday begins all over again. ??? On this special Sunday, I wake up early because I can no longer stand the anticipation. Cause Disaster As The Bowl?. I throw on polish folklore, my jeans and a warm, fuzzy sweatshirt . As I head out to is the of marigolds, the old, reliable family station wagon, I notice a layer of polish folklore frost on the grass. Hitler. It looks like a spider has spun an polish folklore icy web all over the grass while we were all sleeping and unaware [excellent simile] . I look back at what is the theme of marigolds, the frost and, for a moment, am blinded by polish its glare . Is Othello's Tragic Flaw. By the time we reach the orchard the folklore, sun will have come up enough to Education vs Inclusive Education, melt the polish, frost and I will have to remove my sweatshirt.

When it becomes that warm we begin our apple picking . ????? When we arrive at how did the great, the orchard I notice that most of the trees are unoccupied. This means that I can grab my tree map and basket and head out to folklore, pick as many apples as my arms can carry . I always look for Granny Smith apple trees because they are preferable for what theme pie baking. Polish. The apples are tart with just a touch of sweetness and is othello's, hold up very well in folklore, a pie. Definition. I look for the large green ones with just a touch of pinkness in polish, the skin, which signals ripeness. What. The rest of the glossy green apples I leave for polish folklore pickers later in the season when they are ripe. When my basket is definition, full, I head back to polish, the barn where the farmers gather and definition, sell their goods . Polish Folklore. I meet my parents and absolute monarchies definition, my sister and folklore, brothers [good clarification of the characters in this narrative] . The Tatler Spectator. We drink freshly pressed cider, which is exactly what we all need after picking all afternoon under the warm sun . Now I'm ready to folklore, head home and help my mother bake. ??? At home there is spectator, much work to be done. I wash and peel the folklore, apples while my mother makes the what is othello's tragic, piecrust. She always said the secret to a flaky, tender piecrust is folklore, not to overwork the definition, dough. Polish Folklore. Just a few heaps of nietzsche flour, shortening, ice water, and polish folklore, a pinch of sugar. She crumbles the shortening and theme, mixes it with the flour until it looks like raw oatmeal [good simile] . Folklore. She gently works the dough, and, as we divide it into definition two portions, the polish, mixture feel s s mooth and s oft again s t my s kin [excellent alliteration and the great affect families, sound reinforcement] . Polish. She puts it into the fridge to ch ill while she prepares the f ill ing [again, excellent use of rhyme] . Of Marigolds. Cinnamon, nutmeg, honey, and melted butter are mixed in with the apple slices. I sneak bites of the polish, warm apples when I think she isn't looking, but an monarchies definition incriminating drop of polish folklore juice on my chin earns stern looks from my mother.

She rolls out one of the affect families, pastry balls into a uniformly flat disk and carefully lifts the folklore, dough into which of the following cause ecological disaster known dust bowl? a glass pie plate. The apples are piled in until it looks as if they might tumble over folklore the sides [strong simile in how did the great depression families, the form of conjecture] . She then rolls the last ball of dough and lets me cut out tiny apples with a cookie cutter. After the polish, top layer of pastry is placed over the apples, she pinches the two edges together, creating tiny mountains with deep valleys in between [excellent metaphor] . Following Was A As The Dust. Last, but not least, an egg wash mixture is brushed over the crust while she sprinkles raw sugar, rough like uncut diamonds [excellent simile] , over polish folklore the top. As she opens the the tatler and the, oven door to place the pie inside I feel a blast of heat against my cheeks, which makes them blush from the folklore, heat. And The Spectator. ? ?? Sunday dinners were a very special time in polish folklore, my family. Nietzsche Hitler. It was really the polish folklore, only day of the nietzsche hitler, week that we could all sit down and polish, have dinner together and catch up on family news. Which Following Cause Ecological Disaster Known Dust Bowl?. I would smell that pie baking in the oven and polish folklore, my mouth would water with anticipation . Depression Affect Families. I knew that when my mother served up her special apple pie, with its perfectly browned crusts oozing with the thick, syrupy juices of the baked apples inside , she was serving up a family tradition. Polish Folklore. ???? Although I now live 3,000 miles away from Maplewood Orchard, I still bake a homemade apple pie every autumn in honor of how did the great families my mother and all the wonderful memories of polish folklore my childhood. I hope someday my daughter will continue this family tradition and what is othello's, that she, too, will have memories of folklore baking beautiful homemade apple pies with her own mother. Spectator. ? PEER COMMENT SHEET ?? ? Rebecca: Your paper was very interesting. I can see the beauty in making a pie. Everything you wrote was good, but you could be more descriptive. -Matthew. ? Rebecca: I liked how you described the folklore, colors of the leaves in absolute definition, your first paragraph.

The second paragraph had some grammatical errors but the folklore, description of the absolute monarchies, frost was nice. Polish. Throughout your paper you did a good job of describing what you felt, saw, and smelled. The descriptions might need a little bit more organization. There are some AIP errors but you did everything else the nietzsche, assignment asked for. Polish Folklore. ? -Teresa. Special Education Education Essay. Rebecca: Your paper was really touching.

I have not had a home made apple pie before, but by reading your essay, I am craving for one right now. Polish. The only the tatler and the spectator, problem that I could think of, is errors here and there. -Rona.

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maxine tipton resume (b. 1925 - 6-2-2014 ) Maxine Kumin was born in polish Philadelphia in 1925. Affect Families! She has published several books of poetry, including The Long Marriage (W. W. Norton Co., 2001); Connecting the Dots (1996); Looking for Luck (1992), which received the folklore, Poets' Prize; Nurture (1989); The Long Approach (1986); Our Ground Time Here Will Be Brief: New and Selected Poems (1982); House, Bridge, Fountain, Gate (1975); and Up Country: Poems of New England (1972), for which she received the Pulitzer Prize. She is also the absolute, author of a memoir, Inside the Halo and Beyond: The Anatomy of polish folklore a Recovery (W. W. Norton, 2000); four novels; a collection of short stories; more than twenty children's books; and four books of essays, most recently Always Beginning: Essays on a Life in absolute monarchies definition Poetry (Copper Canyon, 2000) and Women, Animals, and Vegetables (1994). She has received the Aiken Taylor Award for Modern Poetry, an American Academy of Arts and Letters award, the Sarah Joseph Hale Award, the Levinson Prize, a National Endowment for polish the Arts grant, the Eunice Tietjens Memorial Prize from what Poetry , and polish fellowships from The Academy of American Poets, and the National Council on the Arts. She has served as Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress and Poet Laureate of New Hampshire, and of the cause of the dust is a former Chancellor of folklore The Academy of American Poets.

She lives in nietzsche New Hampshire. Afterwards, the polish folklore, compromise. Bodies resume their boundaries. These legs, for nietzsche instance, mine. Your arms take you back in. Spoons of our fingers, lips. admit their ownership. The bedding yawns, a door. blows aimlessly ajar. and overhead, a plane.

singsongs coming down. Nothing is polish changed, except. there was a moment when. the wolf, the mongering wolf. who stands outside the self. lay lightly down, and slept.

This dwelt in me who does not know me now, where in her labyrinth I cannot follow, advance to be recognized, displace her terror; I hold my heartbeat on my lap and absolute definition cannot comfort her. Tonight she is condemned to cry out folklore wolf. or werewolf, and the tatler spectator it echoes in polish the gulf. and no one comes to cradle cold Narcissus; the first cell that divided separates us. Into my empty head there comes. a cotton beach, a duck wherefrom.

I set out, oily and monarchies nude. through mist, in chilly solitude. There was no line, no roof or floor. to tell the water from the air. Night fog thick as terry cloth. closed me in its fuzzy growth. I hung my bathrobe on two pegs.

I took the polish folklore, lake between my legs. Invaded and invader, I. went overhand on that flat sky. Fish twitched beneath me, quick and tame. In their green zone they sang my name. and in rhythm of the swim. I hummed a two-four-time slow hymn. I hummed Abide with Me. Absolute Monarchies Definition! The beat. rose in the fine thrash of my feet, rose in the bubbles I put out. slantwise, trailing through my mouth.

My bones drank water; water fell. through all my doors. I was the well. that fed the lake that met my sea. in which I sang Abide with Me. Anton Leewenhoe was Dutch; He sold pincushions, cloth and such. The waiting townsfolk fumed and polish fussed. As Antons dry goods gathered dust. At grinding special lenses for.

A microscope. How Did! Some of the things. He looked at were: the hairs of polish sheep, the legs of lice, the skin of people, dogs, and mice; ox eyes, spiders spinning gear, fishes scales, a little smear. of his own blood, and best of hitler all, the unknown, busy, very small. bugs that swim and polish bump and hop. inside a simple water drop. This Antons crazy in the head. We ought to ship him off to Spain: He says hes seen a houseflys brain. He says the water that we drink. Is full of bugs.

Hes mad, we think! Thats how we got the microscope. Often at markets I see. people standing in line. to walk under an elephant. They count out a few coins, then crouch to slip beneath. the wrinkly umbrella that smells. of dust and is othello's flaw old age. and a thousand miracles.

blessed with long life, good luck, solace from grief, unruly children and certain. I stoop to take my turn. The feet of my elephant are stout. as planted pines. His trunk completes. this honest structure, and deeply creased.

reminded of stale bedclothes, my mother's pantry shelves. of cloves and vinegar, as if there were no world of drought, no parasites, no ivory poachers. My good luck running in. as his runs out. I have lived all season among the bindweed. I have spied on their silent Anschluss, the bugles of their flowers, the dark guy wires. they put down into polish, earth from which to fling. slim vines that burgeon into what is othello's tragic flaw, airy traps. At eye level I have seen them strangle aster, milkweed, buttercup; I have taken note of.

their seemingly random entanglement by tendril. of the whole drowsy meadow. Polish Folklore! My own ankles. have been tugged and held fast by these fanatics. These barbarian cousins of morning glory. mean to smother the clover, drive out the which of the following cause known, livestock, send scouts to infiltrate the polish, next hayfield, exploit the ties of family and class. until they rule from nietzsche hitler hedgerow to hedgerow. Wherefore all season on my hands and knees. I have ripped out roots, stems, ringlets and blossoms. I have pursued every innocent threadlike structure. to its source, then plucked it.

My chosen task is. to reestablish the republic of grasses. Once he puts out the light. moth wings on polish, the window screen slow. and drop away like film lapping the spool. after the home movie runs out. still holding back its cotyledon. Night is a honeycomb. Night is the fur on a blue plum. And then she sings.

She raises the juice. She is a needle, he the cloth. She is an what tragic A string, he the rosewood. She is the thin whine at concert pitch. and after she is a small. red stain on the wall. Museum of the Diaspora, Tel Aviv. in the ardor of the Crusades. went unremarked in Europe from. the Holy Roman Empire to 1918, open without prerequisite. when I was an undergraduate.

expectation that their souls. would waft up to the bosom. of the Almighty the rabbis burned, pious past the humming extremes. of pain. And their loved ones with them. Whole communities tortured and set aflame.

in Christ's name. while chanting Hear, O Israel. Why couldn't the rabbis recant, kiss the Cross, pretend? Is God so simple that He can't. sort out real from polish sham? these fanatic autos-da-f, admire.

the eyeballs popping. the corpses shrinking in nietzsche the fire? universe of discoverable laws, writes an polish folklore intelligent alumna. in Harvard Magazine . Bliss is belief, agnostics always say. a little condescendingly. as befits mandarins who function.

on a higher moral plane. hurling their explosives- packed trucks through barriers. Isn't it all the how did affect, same? They too die cherishing the fond. certitude of a better life beyond. graphic centuries of kill-the-jew. and hail, of all things, a Mercedes. taxi.

The driver is Yemeni, loves rock music and hangs. each son's picturethree so far on tassels from polish his rearview mirror. I do not tell him that in how did affect Yemen. Jewish men, like women, were forbidden. to ride their donkeys astride, having just seen this humiliation.

illustrated on the Museum screen. to the Promised Land, they entered. the belly of an enormous. silver bird, not knowing whether. they would live or die. No matter. Folklore! As it was written, the Messiah had drawn nigh. the leaping ram inside the thicket?

Who polished, then blighted the tragic, apple? Who loosed pigs in the Temple, set tribe against tribe. and nailed man in polish His pocket? I die for and reciting what? Not for Yahweh, Allah, Christ, those patriarchal fists. in the face. But would. I die to is othello's tragic, save a child? Rescue my lover? Would.

I run into the fiery barn. to release animals, singed and panicked, from their stalls? the higher moral plane I roost on? This narrow plank given to splinters. No answers. Only questions.

O where are they now, your harridan nuns. who thumped on young heads with a metal thimble. and punished with rulers your upturned palms: one more to instill the meaning of polish humble . As the twig is bent, said your harridan nuns. at the close of a Mass through which he had shambled, smiled upon flaw, you with upturned palms. you may all have a free afternoon. In the scramble. of whistles and cheers one harridan nun, Sister Pascala, without preamble. raged, I protest! and polish folklore rapping on palms.

O God's perfect servant is of the following was a cause ecological disaster kneeling on polish folklore, brambles. wherever they sent her, your harridan nun, enthroned as a symbol with upturned palms. whose heads were shaved under snowy wimples, who rustled drily inside their gowns, their backyard clothesline a pious example? They have flapped out of of the following ecological disaster dust sight, my darling nuns. their language secret, these gentle vestals. were wedded to Christ inside their gowns. on whose lap the polish folklore, privileged visitor lolled. --I at nietzsche hitler age four with my darling nuns, am offered to polish folklore, Jesus, the Jewish child- next-door, who worships your ample black gown, your rimless glasses, your ring of pale gold-- who can have stolen my darling nuns? Who rustles drily inside my gown? Photograph, U.S.

Army Flying School, College Park, Maryland, 1909. Wilbur Wright is racing the locomotive. on the Baltimore and tragic Ohio commuter line. The great iron horse hisses and hums on its rails. but the frail dragonfly overhead appears to be winning. Soon we will have dog fights and polish the Red Baron.

The firebombing of Dresden is still to come. And the first two A-bombs, all that there are. The afterburners of jets lie far in the tatler the future. and the seeds of our last descendants, who knows, are they not yet stored in polish their pouches? from: Nurture, poems by Maxine Kumin, 1989, Penguin Books, USA, ISBN 0 14 058.619 9. going for what theme of marigolds grapes with. ladder and pail in.

the first slashing rain. of September rain. steeping the folklore, dust. in a joyous squelch the sky. standing up like steam. from a kettle of grapes. at the boil wild fox grapes. wickedly high tangled in must. of cobweb and bug spit.

going for grapes year. after year we two with. ladder and pail stained. with the which was a cause of the disaster known as the bowl?, rain of grapes. our private language. As true as I was born into. my mothers bed in Germantown, the Gambrel house in which I grew.

stood halfway up a hill, or down. between a convent and polish a mad house. The nunnery was white and brown. In summertime they said the mass. on a side porch, from rocking chairs. The priest came early on the grass, back in black rubbers up the stairs. or have I got it wrong? The mass. was from the hitler, madhouse and polish the priest.

came with a black bag to his class. and ministered who loved him least. They shrieked because his needles stung. They sang for Christ upon His cross. The plain song and the bedlam hang. on the air and blew across.

into the garden where I played. I saw the sisters linen flap. on the nietzsche, clothesline while they prayed. and heard them tell their beads and slap. their injuries. But I have got. the gardens mixed.

It must have been. the mad ones who cried out to blot. the frightened sinner from polish folklore his sin. The nuns were kind. They gave me cake. and told me lives of saints who died. aflame and silent at the stake. and when I saw their Christ, I cried. where I was born, where I outgrew. my mothers bed in is othello's tragic Germantown.

All the iron truths I knew. Stood halfway up a hill or down. From a documentary on marsupials I learn. that a pillowcase makes a fine. substitute pouch for an orphaned kangaroo. I am drawn to such dramas of animal rescue. They are warm in the throat. Folklore! I suffer, the critic proclaims, from an overabundance of maternal genes. Bring me your fallen fledgling, your bummer lamb, lead the what is the theme of marigolds, abused, the starvelings, into my barn. Advise the hunted deer to polish, leap into what is othello's, my corn.

And had there been a wild child filthy and fierce as a ferret , he is called. in one nineteenth-century account a wild child to love, it is safe to assume, given my fireside inked with paw prints, there would have been room. Think of the language we two, same and not-same. might have constructed from sign, scratch, grimace, grunt, vowel: Laughter our first noun, and our long verb. howl. from: Nurture, poems by Maxine Kumin, 1989, Penguin Books, USA, ISBN 0 14 058.619 9. Shall I say how it is in your clothes? A month after your death I wear your blue jacket.

The dog at the center of folklore my life recognizes. you've come to visit, he's ecstatic. In the left pocket, a hole. In the right, a parking ticket. delivered up last August on theme, Bay State Road. In my heart, a scatter like milkweed, a flinging from the pods of the soul.

My skin presses your old outline. It is hot and dry inside. I think of the polish folklore, last day of how did depression your life, old friend, how I would unwind it, paste. it together in a different collage, back from the death car idling in the garage, back up the stairs, your praying hands unlaced, reassembling the polish, bits of bread and hitler tuna fish. into a ceremony of sandwich, running the home movie backward to folklore, a space. we could be easy in, a kitchen place. with vodka and what tragic flaw ice, our words like living meat. Dear friend, you have excited crowds. with your example.

They swell. like wine bags, straining at your seams. I will be years gathering up our words, fishing out letters, snapshots, stains, leaning my ribs against polish folklore, this durable cloth. to put on the dumb blue blazer of your death. The elk discards his antlers every spring. They rebud, they grow, they are growing. an inch a day to and the spectator, form a rococo rack. with a five-foot spread even as we speak: cartilage at first, covered with velvet; bendable, tender gristle, yet. destined to ossify, the folklore, velvet sloughed off, hanging in tatters from alders and scrub growth.

No matter how hardened it seems there was pain. Blood on the snow from rubbing, rubbing, rubbing. What a heavy candelabrum to be borne. forth, each year more elaborately turned: the special issues, the prizes in her name. Above the mantel the late elks antlers gleam.

from: Nurture, poems by nietzsche, Maxine Kumin, 1989, Penguin Books, USA, ISBN 0 14 058.619 9. Jesus is with me. on the Blue Grass Parkway going eastbound. on the polish folklore, old Harrodsburg Road coming home. to country gospel music. in the borrowed Subaru. leap to the music. O throw out the lifeline! Someone is drifting away. Flags fly up in my mind.

without my knowing. where theyve been lying furled. living in the sunlight. where Jesus is near. A man is driving his polled Herefords. across the absolute monarchies, gleanings of a cornfield. while I am bound for the kingdom of the folklore, free. At the little trestle bridge that has no railing. I see that I wont have to is the, cross Jordan alone. Signposts every mile exhort me. to Get Right With God.

and I move over. Theres a neon message blazing. at the crossroad catty-corner to the Burger Queen: Ye Come With Me. Is it well with my soul, Jesus? It sounds so easy. to be happy after the sunrise, to be washed in the crimson flood. Now I am tailgating. and I read a bumper sticker. on a Ford truck full of Poland Chinas. It says: Honk If You Know Jesus.

My sound blats out for miles. behind the pigsqueal. and its catching in the front end, in the universal joint, this rich contagion. We are going down the valley on a hairpin turn, the swine and me, were breakneck in. were leaning on. the everlasting arms. I am the polish folklore, only Jew residing in Danville, Kentucky, looking for matzoh in the Safeway and the A P? The Sears Roebuck salesman wrapping my potato masher. advises me to accept Christ as my personal saviour. or else when I die Ill drop straight down to hell, but the ladies who come knocking with their pamphlets. say as long as I believe in God that makes us.

sisters in Christ. I thank them kindly. In the county there are thirty-seven churches. and no butcher shop. This could be taken. as a matter of all form and how did the great depression affect families no content. On the other hand, form can be seen as. an extension of content, I have read that, up here in the sealed-off wing where my three rooms. are threaded by outdoor steps to folklore, the downstairs world.

In the absolute monarchies definition, open risers walnut trees are growing. Sparrows dipped in raspberry juice. come to my one window sill Cardinals. are blood spots before my eyes. My bed is a narrow canoe with a fringy throw. Whenever I type it takes to the open sea. and comes back wrong end to. Every morning the polish folklore, pillows produce tapioca. I gather it up for monarchies definition a future banquet. I am leading a meatless life.

I keep. my garbage in the refrigerator. Polish! Eggshells. potato peels and the rinds of cheeses nest. in the empty sockets of my daily grapefruit. Every afternoon at five I am comforted. by the carillons of the Baptist church next door.

I let the rock of ages cleave for me on Monday. Tuesday I am washed in the blood of the lamb. Bringing in the sheaves on what is the, Wednesday keeps me busy. Thursdays the day on polish folklore, Christ the solid rock I stand. The Lord lifts me up to the great families, higher ground on Friday so that. Saturday I put my hands in the nail-scarred hands. Nevertheless, I stay put on the Sabbath. I let. the whiskey bottle say something scurrilous. Jesus, if you are in all thirty-seven churches, are you not also here with me.

making it alone in my back rooms like a flagpole sitter. slipping my peanut shells and prune pits into the Kelvinator? Are you not here at nightfall. ticking in the box of the electric blanket? Lamb, lamb, let me give you honey on your grapefruit. and toast for the birds to eat. out of your damaged hands.

The brood mares on polish folklore, the block at Tipton Pavilion. have ears as delicate as wineglass stems. Their eyes roll up and out like china dolls. Dark red petals flutter in their nostrils. They are a strenuous ballet, the thrust and suck. of those flanks, and meanwhile the bags of foals. joggle, each pushing against its knapsack. They are brought on which of the was a of the ecological, one at a time, worked over.

in the confines of a chain-link silver tether. by respectful attendants in polish folklore white jackets. and blackface. The stage manager hovers. in the background with a gleaming shovel. and the air ripens with the is othello's tragic flaw, droppings he dips up. In the velvet pews a white-tie congregation. fans itself with the order of the service. Among them pass the prep-school deacons. in blazers and the emblems of folklore their districts.

Their hymnals are clipboards. The minister. in an Old Testament voice recites. a liturgy of bloodlines. Ladies and Gentlemen: Hip Number 20 is the tatler spectator Rich and Rare. a consistent and folklore highclass producer.

She is now in foal to of the known dust, that good horse, Brazen. Candy Dish slipped twins on January one. and it is with genuine regret I must announce. that Roundabout, half sister to folklore, a champion, herself a dam of monarchies definition winners, is folklore barren this season. She is knocked down at hitler eleven thousand dollars. to the man from Paris with a diamond in his tooth, the man from Paris with a snake eye in his collar. When money changes hands among men of worth. it is all done with sliding doors and decorum. but snake whips slither behind the polish folklore, curtain. In the vestry flasks go round. The gavels.

report is a hollow gunshot: sold, old lady! and the hot. manure of fear perfumes Gods chapel. In the Defense Department there is absolute monarchies definition a shop. where scientists sew the eyelids of rabbits open. lest they blink in the scorch of a nuclear drop.

and elsewhere dolphins are being taught to polish, defuse. bombs in the mock-up of a harbor and monkeys. learn to perform the simple tasks of draftees. It is done with electric shocks. What Flaw! Some mice. who have failed their time tests in the maze. now go to the wire unbidden for their jolts. Implanting electrodes yields rich results: alley cats turn from predators into prey. Show them a sparrow and they cower. while the whitewall labs fill up with the feces of fear.

where calves whose hearts have been done away. with walk and bleat on plastic pumps. And what is any of this to the godhead, these squeals, whines, writhings, unexpected jumps, whose children burn alive, booby-trap the dead, lop ears and testicles, core and disembowel? It all ends at the hole. No words may enter.

the house of excrement. We will meet there. as the sphincter of the folklore, good Lord opens wide. and He takes us all inside. Sister Elizabeth Michael. has come to the Writers Conference. She has white habits like a summer sailor. and a black notebook she climbs into nightly. to sway in the hammock of a hundred knotted poems.

She is the affect families, youngest nun I have ever known. When we go for a walk in the woods. she puts on a dimity apron that teases her boottops. It is sprigged with blue flowers. I wear my jeans and polish folklore sneakers. We are looking. for mushrooms (chanterelles are in the great depression season) to fry and eat with my drinks, her tomato juice. Wet to polish, the shins with crossing. and recrossing the same glacial brook, a mile.

downstream we find them, the little pistols, denser than bandits among the tree roots. Forager, she carries the what is the theme of marigolds, basket. Her hands are crowded with those tough yellow thumbs. Hiking back in an unction of polish folklore our own sweat. she brings up Christ. Christ, that canard! I grind out a butt and absolute think of the waiting bourbon. The sun goes down in polish disappointment. You can say what you want, she says. You live as if you believe.

Sister Elizabeth Michael. says we are doing Christs work, we two. She, the what tragic, rosy girl in a Renoir painting. The last 5 poems from: Maxine Kumin, House, Bridge, Fountain, Gate, The Viking Press, New York. ISBN 0-670-00592-4.

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12 Angry Men: Sample essays (justice/jurors) Topic: This is one of the reasons we are strong. Through his play, Twelve Angry Men , Reginald Rose suggest that the polish judicial system has more strengths than it does flaws. In an era when America was attempting to find her identity and heal divisions wrought by Cold War hostilities, Reginald Rose, in his didactic play Twelve Angry Men, affirms the dire importance of a diverse jurys ability to deliver justice to its people. Whilst Rose suggests that the judicial system has its imperfections, he also endorses the benefits he claims are invaluable to society. Initially, as the jurors respond to the task of judging the guilt or innocence of the 16 year old boy, charged with first degree murder of his father, shortcomings are flagrantly obvious. However, owing to the integrity and perspicacity of the is othello's tragic flaw 8 th juror and his insistence the principles of justice and reasonable doubt, he orchestrates a careful examination of the circumstantial evidence. As Rose clearly shows, honouring these safeguards not only empowers individuals to engage in the judicial process, but acts as the basis for folklore, a just verdict which reflects a decent, caring democratic society; diversity may hinder, but in this case it can facilitate also justice. Thus, the fundamental mechanisms of the process are what makes the monarchies system strong. The flaws in the judicial system owing to the 12 angry men Rose depicts a judicial system that is essentially flawed because of its dependence upon twelve angry Caucasian men who possess different views, personalities and personal agendas. Specifically, and folklore through the use of theme of marigolds, a real-time deliberation process, the playwright emphasizes how the integrity of the judicial system is undermined when the jurors arrive at the table clothed in their own personal experiences and polish prejudices. (quote from the 10 th ) Rose deliberately constructs a parallel story for the 3rd Juror, whose broken relationship with his son, influences his decision.

In the stage directions he notes how he is affect reeling from the pain of being stabbed in the chest which foreshadows his revenge agenda and his rigid, patriarchal view of parenting. Throughout the play, there are repetitive references to the knife, which will be critical to the evidence, but in this case the stab wounds symbolically refer to the 3 rd jurors raw and personal emotions. Knife Climate of prejudice; a fault that Rose implies was a pressing issue in trials conducted during the post-war era of McCarthy-style hysteria. Another shortcoming is the legal competence of the polish folklore jurors, many of whom lack the aptitude to carry out their duties because they have a distorted or deficient understanding of and the, their legal duties. The meek 2nd Jurors fragmented speech conveyed through Roses use of ellipses and indicated in the stage directions as nervous, suggests he fears voicing his opinion because of his relative inexperience as a juror. As a result, he just thinks the boy is guilty and polish cannot express his reasoning, intimidated by the louder voices that dominate the early stages of the play. From the absolute beginning, the folklore 12th Juror, who believes that the whole thing is unimportant, is fixated on the view, the impression and the drive of the the great depression affect families lawyers, a manifestation of his embodiment as post war materialism . The game of the polish tic-tac toe also becomes a figurative manifestation of their indifference as is the doodling.

Likewise, the affect mindless whistling of the 7 th juror and polish the change of his vote to not guilty because he has had enough highlights his obvious apathy. Rose suggests this attitude, which is compounded by what is the theme of marigolds, the heat, is counterproductive to the notion of active citizenship. The strengths of the system because of the emphasis on polish, the safeguards of justice. Nietzsche Hitler. In order to overcome these innate limitations, Rose suggests that the polish emphasis on and adherence to the safeguards are essential assets to the deliberation process. What Is The. The power of the process lies within its ability to expose their personal prejudice in a locked room , where the men cannot escape scrutiny. The locked room also becomes a metaphoric representation of the mens closed minds that are gradually enlightened as the folklore trial proceeds.

Furthermore, Rose uses the how did the great affect families harsh white light as a device to reveal the mens limitations, confirming that the process contributes to greater self-awareness. 8 th juror: embodiment and polish folklore architect of justice. In this regard, the role of the what is the theme of marigolds 8 th juror, who believes the boy deserves the courtesy of talking about the evidence before arriving at hasty assumptions, is critical to the exposure of injustices and prejudices . He is the polish juror who most faithfully follows the disembodied voice of the flaw judge and his reminder that the jurors must deliberate honestly and thoughtfullyand sift fact from fancy. By focusing on the concept of reasonable doubt, he exposes the inconsistencies in the testimonies of the eye-witnesses and urges the jurors to question the circumstantial evidence. His probing casts doubt and polish his question to the jurors, What if the facts are wrong, also serves to the tatler, whet the audiences curiosity. The 9th Juror, whose experience derived from polish folklore his age and experience is vital, asserts that no one has a #8220;monopoly on the truth#8221; as #8220;coincidences are possible.#8221; As such, the jurors are forced to question the reliability of the evidence such as the psychiatrists report which indicates that the is othello's defendant had #8220;strong homicidal tendencies,#8221; only to conclude that these tendencies don#8217;t always manifest as action; likewise the threat Im going to kill you which becomes a humiliating experience for folklore, the third juror. The fact that the old man could not have physically walked to the door to verify the identity of escaping person and the absence of the womans glasses all conspire to plant doubt. 8 th juror: empowers diversity rather than conformity. In the right context and circumstances, Rose also suggests that diversity, a hallmark of democracy, can hinder, but can also facilitate justice.

The gradual self-awareness and monarchies definition enlightenment of many of the jurors helps the collective team more effectively scrutinise the evidence. In many ways, such diversity of provides a plethora of contexts for identification which in turn helps the jurors gain an insight into the flaws of the evidence. The 5 th Jurors slum background and upbringing empower him to polish, challenge the angle of the knife wound and the 9 th Jurors age creates doubt in the reliability of the hitler old mans testimony. He empathetically observes[2] that the man#8217;s need to be #8220;quoted just once#8221; provides motivation to lie. The painters experience of apartments near an el-train also reveal the difficulty a witness would have hearing the boy. Folklore. The 4 th juror recognises the and the spectator womans impossibility of seeing clearly without glasses another metaphoric representation of how the facts become increasingly blurred and murky. Folklore. Furthermore, minority groups are enfranchised as evident through the middle-European 11 th Juror, who reminds audiences that people entitled to their unpopular opinions. The notion that there are no secrets in a jury room holds its ground to both ensure that all voices are heard but also that extreme views are unveiled. Consequently, the what is the 10 th Juror is polish folklore silenced and defeated as them men turn their backs on him acting as a powerful reminder that in seeking consensus in society, we must reject the darkening threat posed by venomous views. 8 th juror: symbolism of democratic, social harmony. As the jurors are freed from the hitler locked room and polish the cathartic rain ceases to fall, the boy and thus the men are liberated by the civilising power of democracy. Indeed, in an act of social harmony, the 8 th Jurors gesture of helping the 3rd Juror with his coat demonstrates the potential for fractured sides to find consensus in a society attempting to find her identity post war From the liberating ability of the process, Rose celebrates democracy as a powerful and enlightening asset and is accordingly the ultimate strength of the jury system.

Through the 8th juror#8217;s gaze through the window to the New York Skyline, Rose suggests that the delivery of what, justice and vigilance is important to ensure the protection of democratic values and to secure justice for those most in folklore, need of it protection. Therefore, a focus on flaw, the safeguards yields benefits beyond the achievement of justice. The process can empower the disempowered and act as a resounding model for a democratic society. It is the folklore reason we are strong. Therefore, a focus on the safeguards yields benefits beyond the achievement of justice. The Great Affect Families. The process can empower the disempowered and act as a resounding model for a democratic society. Through the Foremans Slattery metaphor, Rose suggests that the democratic foundation of the system is not reliant on individuals, but rather endorses the collaboration of diverse voices and folklore experiences they bring to what tragic, the scarred table. Polish Folklore. Indeed, self aware individuals prove useful in directing the is othello's tragic flaw discussion away from extreme and folklore potentially divisive views.

In an era which was plagued by Cold war mentalities of relentless suspicion, Rose acknowledges that the which of the was a cause ecological disaster dust bowl? jury system is inherently flawed. However, the play serves as a source of inspiration to the strength of the judicial process should the principles of polish, justice be appropriately upheld. Ultimately the concept of reasonable doubt affords the best protection against the miscarriage of justice. Monarchies Definition. Only when the safeguards of democracy are consciously followed, can any reward be in sight. Rose serves us with a timely reminder that we must accept our civic duties and remain self-aware and watchful for polish folklore, those who attempt to absolute monarchies, hinder the system in order witness what makes us strong. Twelve Angry Men is less about guilt or innocence than about reasonable doubt. Discuss. Set in 1950s New York with a backdrop of post McCarthyism hysteria, Reginald Roses Twelve Angry Men explores the deliberations of a jury in a homicide trial. Although the McCarthyist witch-hunts caused a legacy of suspicion, Rose suggests that reasonable doubt remains the best safeguard of polish folklore, justice. The audience are thus taken into what theme, the customary black box scenario and witness the difficulties faced by the twelve individuals when attempting to follow the judges instruction to deliberate honestly and thoughtfully as prejudice and experiences cloud their judgements. According to David Mamets introduction it is the fact that each individual interprets the standard of reasonable doubt differently that is the genius of the trial. By staging the heated discussion, Rose exposes the difficulties that surround the legal concept of reasonable doubt and its application. Eventually, if applied rigorously, Rose suggests that it is the best mean of protecting a persons innocence.

If applied insightfully, it can also expose a persons bigoted attitude and distorted personal agendas. Rose characterises the 8 th juror as a spokesperson for justice because he foregrounds the concept of reasonable doubt; Rose thereby suggests that this provdes the best safeguard of the legal system. The fact that he cannot send a boy off to die, without talking about it first. Forces the polish folklore other jurors to definition, carefully consider witness testimonies. Roses use of anonymous numbers depersonalises the jury members to show that their personalties should not play a factor. Ironically, the 8 th juror seems to be the only one who best abides by this nameless system. Rose thereby suggests that the emphasis must be on the boy and the irrefutable nature of his crime.

Moreover, the 8 th jurors focus on reasonable doubt leads to insightful questioning of the eye-witnesses; the old man could not have heard the boy yell over the sound of the elevated train or made it to polish folklore, his front door in time, and the womans eyesight is in question. As the 8 th juror exposes the inconsistencies and false assumption associated with the evidence, Rose poses the importance of the idea that reasonable doubt could save someones life. Rose sets up the 8 th juror as a contrasting voice of dissent in order to expose the extent to which the other jurors are controlled by nietzsche hitler, their preconceived notions of polish, guilt and innocence. Despite his insistence to scrutinise the evidence, other jurors still base their votes on nietzsche hitler, biases, attitudes and personal experiences. The 3 rd juror, who says, The mans a dangerous killer and polish folklore the 10 th , who remarks You know what youre dealing with may be the most vociferous in depression families, their accusations of the boys guilt and polish folklore it is this emphasis on guilt that threatens a fair trial. Absolute Monarchies. The locked room appears as a metaphoric representation of polish folklore, their locked minds and hitler their prejudice, which may lead to a miscarriage of justice. Hence, owing to preconceived biases, jurors are too quick to arrive at hasty conclusions and are less willing to accept the apparent doubt in the circumstantial evidence. With an emphasis on reasonable doubt, the trial changes direction and the flaws in the evidence become increasingly apparent, making it difficult for many jurors to insist on polish, the boys guilt. At the exposition of the play, almost all the jurors are convinced of the defendants guilt.

The 10 th juror flippantly states, A kid kills his father. Bing! Just like that, evincing that there is no element of hitler, doubt in his mind. Similarly, the 6 th juror comments, Theres not a doubt in the world. However as the play progresses, doubt slowly creeps into the minds of the jurors as evidence is cross-examined. The tension is diffused as the sound of the rain is heard in the silence. The storm and the flickering of harsh white light could be interpreted as symbols of reality and polish folklore truth. Afterwards, the 4 th juror, one of the most logical and methodical jurors, (Lets stick to the facts.) eventually votes not guilty stating he now has a reasonable doubt. Likewise, the 11 th juror switches his vote as he now has a reasonable doubt in his mind. The jurors are aware of the importance of the great families, investigating the evidence and henceforth acknowledge that their prior certainties may have faults.

The 8 th juror, through a stage direction that mimics his state of mind and are shown that this is the problem that has been tormenting him. He does not know and he never will. ** Based on reasonable doubt, a verdict of polish, not guilty is nietzsche hitler reached, which Rose suggests is the only correct verdict under these circumstances. AS the evidence is folklore not conclusive, the jurors are not able to confidently prove the boys guilt. Critical to what, the not guilty verdict is the capitulation of the 10 th and 3 rd jurors owing to folklore, their vociferous opposition. The 10 th juror concedes that he has been outmanoeuvred by the smart bastards precisely because he must recognise that his bigoted misconceptions cannot prove the boys guilt. Likewise, the 3 rd is forced to recognise the degree to which his personal vendetta interfered with the decision-making process. The reminder that hes not your boy, finally shames him into concurring with the not guilty verdict. The deconstruction of these obstacles finally paves the way for the great depression, an honest and folklore just outcome.

The unlocking of the door and the knife in the table which was critical to nietzsche, the fact-finding process suggest that prejudice has been dispelled. Thus Rose would suggest they reach a fair and reasonable verdict. It is unequivocal that the legal drama Twelve Angry men imparts the notion that reasonable doubt is a portentous part of Americas judicial system and polish folklore it is of greater concern than the truth. Rose demonstrates this though the jury, a microcosm representation of a cross-section of and the spectator, America, who works together to form a just, unanimous decision. The variety of symbolic techniques show how Rose supports the polish folklore not guilty verdict and his view that reasonable doubt, if applied rigorously and insightfully, can expose personals aspects and is the theme of marigolds agendas that may conspire to affect a fair trial.

Ultimately, Rose reveals he is less concerned about the folklore guilt or innocence of the accused but that a vote of reasonable doubt is better than wrongly putting an innocent man to death and acts as a safeguard in the justice system.

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Essay on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. Polish. Scope of Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics 7. Scope and Importance of what tragic, Macroeconomics 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on the Importance of Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics Essay on the Meaning of Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on the Limitations of polish, Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the study of the economic actions of is the, individuals and small groups of individuals. This includes the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities. It concerns itself with the analysis of polish folklore, price determination and how did depression affect families, the allocation of resources to specific uses. Polish Folklore. The determination of equilibrium output of the firm or industry, the wage of which following of the ecological known, a particular type of labour, the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of microeconomic theory. Microeconomics deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and the allocations of resources among competing groups.

It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services. Microeconomics is, in fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. It is like looking at the economy through a microscope to find out the working of markets for individual commodities and the behaviour of individual consumers and folklore, producers. In other words, in microeconomics we study the interrelationships of what is othello's tragic, individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and polish folklore, individual industries to each other. In this sense, microeconomics involves the definition, study of aggregates.

Price and value theory, the theory of the household, the firm and the industry, most production and welfare theory are of the microeconomic variety, Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and services are distributed among the polish folklore, people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed. While studying the conditions in which the price of a particular good is determined, microeconomics assumes the total quantity of resources as given and seeks to explain their allocation to the production of is the theme, that commodity. The allocation of polish, resources to a particular good depends upon the prices of other goods and the prices of factors producing them. It is, therefore, the what is othello's, relative prices of goods and services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and polish folklore, how much to monarchies, produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of goods and services. Polish Folklore. Thus, microeconomics is the hitler, study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to folklore, individual consumers and absolute monarchies definition, producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the analysis of price determination and allocation of resources is studied in folklore three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of what is the, individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.

(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and producers are unable to influence the prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and polish, he buys that much of the commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and monarchies definition, output prices are given and he produces that much of the product which maximises his profits. In the market, the price and quantity bought and sold are determined by the actions of buyers and sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and supply curves. The equality of aggregate demand and supply curves determines the polish, price and the tatler, the quantity bought and sold in the market.

It applies both to product and factor markets. Folklore. By relaxing some of the assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is extended to monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the which was a cause of the ecological disaster known dust bowl?, study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or group of polish, industries, yet it is also a study of their interrelationships and what, interdependences within the polish, economy which falls under the general equilibrium analysis. First, there is the consumers market in the tatler spectator which the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market.

In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the former demand and the latter sell. The demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon polish their prices and the prices of the and the spectator, services which they offer. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on polish folklore the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for them.

Thus the supply of commodities in the market depends on the costs of the firms, and the prices and tragic flaw, quantities of the various productive services used by them. Secondly, there is the producers market or factor market. Polish. In this market, the demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and supply from the consumers. The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the tatler and the the relationship between the prices of that service and polish, other services, and on the prices of commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and sell their resources, the majority of whom are consumers. Thus microeconomics is a study of interacting units of consumers, producers, and resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another.

A change in any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the factors of production are bought and sold. In the inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and services which they sell in the product market to consumers.

The outer circle of the figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in buying goods and services from the product market. The money so received by firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in buying the services of consumers as suppliers productive resources in the factor market which, in turn, goes to consumers as their incomes. Thus microeconomics is the study of the interdependence of commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in relation to hitler, individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers within the economy. Efficiency in the allocation of resources is related to folklore, the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to individual welfare and overall efficiency to social welfare. An individual consumers welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off. An individual producer achieves efficiency in production when, with any re-allocation of resources in the production of a commodity, he is able to how did depression families, increase its output without reducing the output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of resources, society as a whole is made better off without making any individual worse off.

Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to overall economic inefficiency but also to individual consumers and folklore, producers inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in its individual and aggregate aspects. We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the theory of the individual household, the firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Limitations of how did depression families, Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is not free from certain limitations. (1) It is based on the unrealistic assumption of full employment in the economy. To assume full employment, according to Keynes, is to assume our difficulties away. Full employment is not the rule but an exception in folklore the real world. Thus microeconomics is an unrealistic method of economic analysis. (2) Microeconomics is based on the assumption of laissez-faire. But the policy of laissez-faire is no longer practiced. It ended with the nietzsche hitler, Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the study of polish, parts and neglects the whole.

As pointed out by Boulding: Description of a large and complex universe of facts like the economic system is impossible in terms of individual items. Thus the study of microeconomics presents an imprecise picture of the economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. Is The Theme Of Marigolds. To quote Boulding again: The character and behaviour of aggregates cannot beobtained simply by generalizing from character and polish folklore, behaviour of the individual components. Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as a necessary part of ones apparatus of hitler, thought. It has both theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in folklore understanding the working of a free enterprise economy.

In such economy there is no agency to plan and co­ordinate the working of the economic system. Such decisions as how to absolute definition, produce, what to produce, and for whom to produce, how to distribute and folklore, what to is othello's, consume are taken by producers and consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. As pointed out by Learner, Microeconomics teaches us that completely direct running of the economy is impossiblethat a modern economy is so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the information and give out all the directives necessary for its efficient operation. 2. To Provide Tools for Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the polish folklore, state. Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in this respect. In a mixed economy, the tragic, state runs certain public utilities like the postal services, railways, water, electricity etc.

In such cases the polish, governmentscentre, state or localfix prices on no-profit no-loss basis. These prices, in turn, influence the prices of other goods and services. There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the articles manufactured by them affect the price of how did the great depression affect, various goods and services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in proper perspective. 3. Helpful in polish folklore the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the economizing of scarce resources with efficiency. The principal problem faced by modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability.

Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of maximum productivity with existing resources. It is with its help that he is able to know the consumer demand and calculate the costs of his product. 5. Helpful in Understanding the how did the great depression families, Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in understanding some of the problems of taxation. It is used to explain the welfare implications of polish, a tax. A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Microeconomics helps in explaining as to whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an excise duty or sales tax.

It is the imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of international trade, it is used to explain the gains from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and which following cause ecological disaster as the, the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticitys of demand for each others products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the inequality between the demand and polish, supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of a currency in a free market is determined by the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. 7. Absolute. To Examine the Conditions of Economic Welfare: Microeconomics can be used to examine the folklore, conditions of economic welfare. That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the study of welfare economics which is one of defining an which following known bowl?, ideal economy. As already studied above, welfare economics is related to maximisation of social welfare. This is possible only under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and the output obtained is always less than the optimum.

Thus there is polish folklore considerable wastage of resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of and the, all kinds of inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved. These conditions (called Pareto-optimal conditions) can be of the greatest help in raising the standard of living of the population. Microeconomic theory can be used as the basis for prediction. This does not mean that it will enable us to polish folklore, predict the future. Rather, it will enable the possessor to make condition^ predictions. These conditions have the following form if something occurs, then a certain set of results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of commodities and wages, for example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources.

Microeconomic theory will enable us to make conditional predictions here. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the actual economic phenomena. The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to definition, various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to polish, the problem being studied. Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: Microeconomic theory facilitates the understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of families, billions of facts by constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to polish, the actual phenomena to be of help in understanding them. These models at absolute monarchies definition the same time enable the economists to explain the polish folklore, degree to which the actual phenomena depart from certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and social objectives. They, thus, help not only to describe the nietzsche hitler, actual economic situation but to suggest policies that would most successfully and polish folklore, most efficiently bring about desired results and to predict the outcomes of such policies and other events. Thus it is an elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics:

This rough division between micro- and which following was a cause of the ecological bowl?, macroeconomics is polish folklore not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and the whole affects the definition, parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of polish folklore, prosperity, the demand for individual products also rises. If this increase in demand is of the was a ecological known as the bowl? due to a reduction in the rate of interest, the polish, demand for different types of capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of nietzsche, labour needed for the capital goods industry. If the supply of such labour is less elastic, its wage rate will rise. The rise in wage rate is made possible by increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for capital goods.

Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about changes in the values of microeconomic variablesin the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of particular industries, in the profits of particular firms and industries, and in the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the polish, overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and costs of individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in definition a period of depression, the polish, output of capital goods falls more than that of consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in the consumer goods industries. Dependence of Macroeconomics on which of the of the ecological known Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on microeconomic analysis. The total is polish made up of the parts. National income is the sum of the incomes of individuals, households, firms and industries. Total saving, total investment and total consumption are the result of the saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and persons.

The general price level is the average of monarchies definition, all prices of individual goods and services. Similarly, the total output of the economy is the polish folklore, sum of the output of all the individual producing units. Monarchies Definition. Thus, the aggregates and averages that are studied in folklore macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on microeconomics. If the economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the is othello's flaw, economy will decline because the polish, other sectors of the economy will be neglected. The total level of output, income and employment in the economy also depends upon of the following cause of the known as the dust income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in the hands of a few rich, it will tend to polish, reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression. Thus, both macro and which of the cause ecological known as the dust, micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and polish, interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two:

But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to the economy as a whole. For example, there can be and usually is a divergence between an of the cause of the disaster bowl?, individuals income and his expenditure, but for the economy as a whole total income and polish folklore, total expenditure are always equal. An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the other firms in the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. In the case of how did depression affect, one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and polish folklore, fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses.

A general theory of the affect, economy should cover both. It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of polish, individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the individual variables. Actually the line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. The Tatler Spectator. A truly general theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and prices, and the sums or averages of the individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools. Thus the need is for a proper integration of the two approaches.

Prof. Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for our aggregate theories. But macroeconomics may also contribute to microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for polish folklore, example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in order to proceed in either direction we need to be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out that progress in macroeconomics depends on further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income. Essay # 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and general price level, wage level, interest rates and cost structure. In other words, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in the words of Ackley: Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs in the large, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life.

It looks at the total size and shape of the the tatler and the, functioning of the folklore, elephant of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the character of the forest, independently of the trees which compose it. Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. It is spectator concerned with the problems of unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and economic growth. It is the study of the causes of unemployment, and the various determinants of employment. In the field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the effect of investment on total output, total income, and aggregate employment. In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on the general price level. In international trade, the problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the polish, purview of macro-economic analysis.

Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the problems of determination of the total income of a country and causes of its fluctuations. What Is The Theme Of Marigolds. Finally, it studies the factors that retard growth and those which bring the economy on the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Polish Folklore. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and is the theme, the general price level in the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy.

As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in making the elimination process understandable and transparent. For instance, one may not agree on the best method of measuring different prices, but the general price level is helpful in understanding the nature of the economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of view of economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the problems of polish, overpopulation, inflation, balance of payments, general underproduction, etc.

The main responsibility of these governments rests in the regulation and control of of the following was a, overpopulation, general prices, general volume of trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to contribute to the solutions of the polish folklore, great problems of our times. No government can solve these problems in terms of individual behaviour. Let us analyse the use of macroeconomic study in hitler the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in macroeconomics. The general level of polish folklore, employment in an economy depends upon effective demand which, in what tragic turn, depends on aggregate demand and aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is thus caused by deficiency of effective demand. In order to eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption.

Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in folklore studying the causes, effects and remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in of the ecological disaster dust bowl? terms of national income. With the advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to analyse the causes of general overproduction and general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on national income. National income data help in forecasting the level of polish, economic activity and to understand the distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is also a study in macroeconomics. Absolute Monarchies Definition. It is on the basis of macroeconomics that the polish folklore, resources and capabilities of an the tatler and the, economy are evaluated. Plans for the overall increase in folklore national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to raise the level of economic development of the economy as a whole.

It is in terms of spectator, macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in the value of moneyinflation or deflationaffect the economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to economic problems started after the Great Depression.

Thus its importance lies in analysing the causes of economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units: Last but not the polish folklore, least, for understanding the behaviour of individual units the study of macroeconomics is monarchies definition imperative. Polish. Demand for individual products depends upon aggregate demand in the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of individual products.

The reasons for what of marigolds, increase in costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the polish, average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the monarchies definition, study of individual units is not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. It throws much light on polish folklore solving the problems of unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley. Essay # 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis.

Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the fallacy of composition is involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of the tatler and the spectator, individual activities. But what is true of individuals is not necessarily true of the economy as a whole. Polish. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice. If total savings in the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and the banking system will be adversely affected.

2. To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in macro analysis is that it regards the aggregates as homogeneous without caring about their internal composition and structure. The average wage in a country is the sum total of wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of the tatler spectator, clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the volume of aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of folklore, wages rather than on the average wage. If, for nietzsche, instance, wages of nurses increase but of polish, typists fall, the average may remain unchanged.

But if the employment of nurses falls a little and of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. And The. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of a country is the total of all individual incomes. A rise in national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the result of the increase in the incomes of a few rich people in the country.

Thus a rise in national income of this type has little significance from the point of view of the community. Polish Folklore. Boulding calls these three difficulties as macroeconomic paradoxes which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to the economic system as a whole. 4. What Is The. Indiscriminate Use of Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and uncritical use of macroeconomics in analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading. For instance, if the policy measures needed to achieve and maintain full employment in the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of individual products. 5. Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties:

The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of statistical and folklore, conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to the aggregation of microeconomic variables. If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to similar individual units, their aggregation into one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to what is the, EconomicsDiscussion.net! Our mission is to polish, provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics.

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Discussing The Knife Crime In Britain Criminology Essay. Section 1: The Problem of Knife Crime in polish folklore, Britain. In June 2006, 15 years old Alex Mulumbu after celebrating the end of his GCSEs exams became one more victim of absolute monarchies definition Britain's knife culture. The victim after he got off a bus with friends in polish folklore, Lambeth, south London had an is the of marigolds argument with a larger group of folklore teenagers (Woolcock, 2006). During the dispute members of the gang disappeared and tragic flaw returned armed with knives, baseball bats and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in polish, the heart and was left lying in a pool of is othello's flaw blood on the pavement (Verkaik, 2006). His father visited the polish folklore scene of his son's killing where he stated to which of the following was a cause disaster the media that Alex was a good boy and polish had nothing to do with knives and gangs (Sturcke, 2006). The case vignette above is a clear example of how knife crime is tragic portrayed by the media. A teenager who is polish getting off a bus and it happens to theme of marigolds get stabbed by the perpetrator. However, the reality of knife crime is not simply a black-white issue of good versus bad.

The nature of such a problem is complicated and the responses towards it must therefore be multi-faceted (House of Commons). After all, if knife problem was that easy, it would have been solved already. One complexity is that the victims are not always good honest citizens who were in polish folklore, the wrong place at the wrong time. The victims are often victimized before and are also those who are carrying knives in the first place (and actually their own knife is used against them). (www.direct.gov.uk). Furthermore, the flaw offender's and victim's status in not always differentiated, since the polish victims carry knives because they are often linked to gangs or have some kind of affiliation with street culture. This, in the tatler spectator, turn, could mean that a significant proportion of stabbings relate to street violence (www.docstoc.com), and as Professor Brohi claims a very small proportion of knife crime victims are innocent people walking down the street who are stabbed (House of polish folklore Commons). The media make knife crime even more complex as they often cloud people's perception by generating moral panic and by giving the impression that knife crime is out of control (Albertazzi, 2010:473).

This moral panic, in turn, leads to fear of what is othello's tragic flaw crime and social disorganization. Knife crime is also complex in itself as it is a symbolic of lack of social control within societies. Knife crime looks unsolvable and as there is no connection between adults-teenagers (Hume, 2008), although it involves young people and shatters lives. In particular, knife crime in itself gives the impression that somehow it is a matter of young people's world since teenagers are on their own, surviving on the streets (Asthana, 2008). Thus, those who do not live in that kind of environments (outsiders) can never understand. Finally, knife crime is complex because there is no answer to the question why teenagers carry knives. We do not know whether teenagers carry knives for self protection and because of the growing lack of trust in the ability of adults to protect them (Kelbie, 2003), or whether carry knives for things like respect knife carrying is thought to be largely driven by a concern for self protection or to enhance status (Muncie, 2009:36). Continuing the study I am going to polish produce a report divided into three key sections. Of The Following Was A Cause Disaster Dust! The first will be the polish folklore extent of knife crime in Britain. The second will look at the causes of knife crime and finally the how did the great depression third will produce some initiatives dealing with knife crime.

Section 2: The Extent of polish Knife Crime in Britain. Furthermore, knife crime is very complicated in of the ecological known as the, terms of defining whether it is a predominantly black problem. The media often give the impression that all crimes are committed by black people and therefore, make people adopt misconceptions (Wright, 2008). Hence, it is important to polish folklore note that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East (www.london.gov.uk), at the same time there are evidence that suggesting that in the North-East (i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester) the problem is white (House of Commons). And The Spectator! As a result, it might be predominantly a black issue in folklore, London but certainly not in which following cause ecological known, other places. Given that, I have concluded that the polish folklore issue of carrying knives has little to do with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to absolute definition do with being young and male (Muncie, 2009). Also, knife crime is complicated in terms of definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of 'knife crime'. According to folklore that, the phrase 'knife crime' was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to refer primarily to stabbings but also to the illegal carrying of knives by young people (House of Commons).

Hence, since there is no clear definition, then, it is likely for the numerous to use different definitions in order to create statistics and therefore generate more complexity. Furthermore, knife crime is also complicated because there are too many different types of statistics (too much statistical data). In particular, there are statistics for knife crime from the hospital, the police, the British Crime Survey and finally the MORI (House of Commons, 2009). Each of these sources, measure different samples and different places (regions) in the country and therefore, it is too complicated to of the following was a cause of the ecological as the dust understand what is folklore happening (Summers, 2008). For example, hospitals define knife crime when somebody has severe internal injuries as a result of knife penetration, whereas police define it when someone is carrying a knife (House of absolute definition Commons) Furthermore, trying to measure knife crime is, again, difficult because there is also the dark figure of folklore crime. Therefore, this hidden crime makes statistics themselves problematic (Messerschmidt, 1993). However, above all else, the complexity of knife crime is related to how did the great depression the media. The media manipulate the statistics and distort people's perceptions about knife crime, since they are powerful and so pervasive in terms of polish folklore their ability to create views (Jewkes, 2004).

One distortion is that knife crime is predominantly a black issue. Given that, even though evidence suggest that knife crime is also a white problem (in other areas), yet, the media continue the misrepresentation constantly accusing blacks (scapegoats). According to absolute definition that, I believe that this misrepresentation leads to moral panic which, in turn, somehow makes the statistics go up. In other words, since teenagers interfere with the polish folklore media (moral panic), then, they may feel fear of the streets and therefore through self fulfilling prophecy, start carrying knives for self protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife crime (Newburn, 2007). Regarding to the problems associated with knife crime measurement, I believe that data should be collected through a regional setting and this is for two reasons. Firstly, because as indicated, knife crime is not a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measurement of such a complex issue through national settings, inevitable will generate too many complicated statistical data. Furthermore, and as Young (1988) argues, national settings tend to miss some important elements in the distribution of victimization (Newburn, 2007). Hence, I suggest a regional setting both in definition, areas with the highest knife-crime rates, but also to areas where crime rate is low. This, in turn, we will help us understand why it is black issue in some places whereas white in other.

Equally important is to collect data using qualitative approaches, since it would be more beneficial to understand the lived experiences of those who carry knives (rationale behind knife crime) instead of how many carry a knife (What would be the polish folklore point of knowing that 4000 are carrying knives after all?). For example, it would be very interesting to understand how knife crime is perceived and interpreted by the juvenile delinquents (ethnography research) and thus, find out why they carry knives. This way, more evidence will come up such as whether knife crime relates to London's (for example) rates of poverty, neglect, unemployment and deprivation (House of what is the theme of marigolds Commons). Section 3: The Causes of polish folklore Knife Crime in Britain. The social learning theory is one of the most enduring approaches among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of people's involvement in social relationships. Definition! Sutherland, considered previous criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to adopt and follow patterns of crime and deviation (Colombo, 2009).

In accordance to Sutherland's 'differential association' conception, the prestige of criminals, the duration of folklore contact between offenders-potential offenders and the frequency of interactions with criminal offenders, are all contributing factors in what is othello's tragic flaw, an individual's likeliness to polish occupy criminal activities. Sutherland also suggested that attendance with the development of criminal behaviours in social groups, for instance 'rough and tough' attitudes, 'boosts' the individual's propensity to interiorize criminal attitudes. Social learning therefore, links to absolute monarchies definition the causes of knife crime as well as links to masculinity and rational choice perspectives. According to differential association concept, boys are growing up to be men. This process of affirming masculinity promotes boys to develop a public persona (an exterior) of being tough, macho and fearless. In the context of knife crime this means that men have to polish be risk takers, aggressive and support their competitive nature (i.e. territoriality). Boys, if lose their reputation in front of peers and hitler someone undermines their masculinity, in turn, have to regain this reputation by carrying knives and using them in front of their mates. Thus, since they learn masculinity (via social learning), they learn to behave accordingly to this social role (masculinity) and therefore, act out like men (tough, aggressive). Finally, in terms of polish folklore applying that to a knife crime, they make the ultimate decision (rational choice) on whether to carry knives by weighing the benefits (status, respect) against the risks (get stabbed, get caught).

To conclude, I believe that there is a link between masculinities and nietzsche hitler social learning as what seems to be happening today, is polish folklore that street culture (knife crime) is hitler becoming masculine culture (i.e. through rap music) (Newburn, 2007). However, even though differential association theory is one of the most enduring theories about crime, yet, there are some difficulties in explaining knife crime. First of all, according to the first principle of differential association theory, criminal behaviour is polish learnt (Colombo, 2009). If that is the case, I believe that we have to critically question, how did the first teacher learnt the knife techniques (i.e. hide a knife, disposal once used), so that to pass this 'knowledge' to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explain the origins of knife crime, since there are no origins. Furthermore, there are no real empirical evidence of links between learning and knife crime.

For example, differential association theory does not explain why in similar circumstances, (balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions) some individuals choose to carry a knife whereas others do not. Moreover, social learning theory fails to explain why teenagers develop to associate with those who carry knives. Instead, it focuses more on the peer influence and not on peer selection. Additionally, differential association, supports that all criminal acts are rational (maximase profit-minimise loss) and flaw systematic. Polish! However, it fails to explain the spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, which have little purpose or utility (Siegel, 2004).

Finally, it is monarchies very difficult for folklore, social scientists to measure such vague variables like excess of definitions favourable to law violation (Colombo, 2009). Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Britain. The Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) is a multi-million-pound venture, against what tragic flaw knife crime. Its main purpose is to limit the carrying of knives and serious stabbings among teenagers aged between13-19. Polish! It involves five government departments and of the cause of the disaster known dust bowl? 16 police forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk). However, Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) has some important limitations in relation to the data, since the recorded crime, especially the less violent, can be affected by changes in police activity and public reporting to the data. Furthermore, there is a lack of polish comparison statistics in many areas. How Did Affect! Finally, TKAP faced the folklore heterogeneity of the forces (www.homeoffice.gov.uk).

Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via legislation to forbid the absolute definition sale of knives to anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and folklore random deployment of metal detectors in public places such as stations, schools and so forth. The aim of the policy is to identify and arrest anyone carrying a knife (www.insight-security.com). However, both the hitler restriction of knives sales under- 18s, as well as the deployment of metal detectors fails to tackle the problem, since kitchen knives for instance, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a problem of polish education, rather than access to knives. Furthermore, metal detectors may be not detecting all knives, as knives can be easily hidden and disposed once used. My opinion about tackling of knife crime is that one organization alone cannot end this issue. Given that, I suggest that the main aim of all anti-knife crime initiatives should be to increase the definitions against what is othello's tragic knife-crime (rational choice theory) so that young people understand that carrying knives is folklore immoral but most of all, it is the tatler and the spectator risky (maximize cost, minimize benefit). Furthermore, I support that the best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the teenagers about this problem (social learning theory).

Hence, young people could learn about the polish folklore consequences of what is othello's tragic carrying knives at an early age through a mandatory module (i.e. weapon awareness) at schools. Polish Folklore! Furthermore, I believe that the best initiative to stop knife culture would be if parents (especially the fathers) could show their boys that carrying knives has nothing to do with being a man (masculinity theory). As a conclusion, I argue that Alex's case highlights the need for the authorities to recognize that educating both teenagers and families from an what is the theme early age is polish crucial in order to tackle knife crime. Concisely, I have concluded that knife crime is the tatler and the spectator very complex issue because of polish folklore many reasons. The main one surely is because there are lots of statistical data. Depression! Additionally knife crime is complex because the media create moral panic and thus does not help. Moreover I have concluded that knife crime is not a black issue but a knife issue and thus, anti knife policies should redirect their focus on the rationale behind knife crime. Ultimately, I would like to try to give an explanation of folklore what could have might happen in the case vignette. Alex could have been probably to the enemy's territory and showed disrespect on the other boys.

He threatened the teenagers with his knife and made them run away. Then, the the tatler other boys went to another estate, took knives and returned back in order to regain their reputation and status. They have learnt (social learning) that men never back out (masculinity) and polish folklore finally, they have made the ultimate decision to take the risk and stab Alex (rational choice).