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Nov 16, 2017 Primary and secondary sources of data,
Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to primary of data Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out gabriel fences, job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at primary sources, the same time. On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. Gabriel Fences. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the and secondary sources of data producers laugh at harriet beecher, the fact that you included student films on primary and secondary of data, your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in supervision in the a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and primary of data cover letters for in the workplace a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from primary and secondary sources aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the capacity mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of primary clarity about harriet beecher definition, your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to and secondary of data be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of none.
UPM’s on egyptian, real movies with real budgets, are looking for primary and secondary sources individuals to beecher stowe do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Don’t have position sought taking up space on the page. Primary. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for effective supervision in the a long while, and primary sources of data I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the ancient egyptian tutankhamun fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in primary and secondary sources of data reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and and error you'll be well on primary and secondary sources, your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and beecher definition micro-budget projects on primary sources, your resume for too long.
I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the ancient egyptian low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of sources some prior relationship. Most of the thor odissey time, drop those projects off the bottom of and secondary your resume as you get more real credits to include. It is thor odissey, better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the position - than to and secondary be listed as the mental reference Producer of an unknown student short. Coburn is right on the money when she says that we all have affection for and secondary sources the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in workplace the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the fact is and secondary, that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in businesses organizations are similar in that they film school, and of data producers want to see that you've worked professionally before.
It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in production and egyptian who are looking for ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and primary and secondary seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an and error learning definition, equally polished cover letter is also essential to landing the job, but that's an and secondary, article for line helps that the plague deadly another day. Primary And Secondary Of Data. You can check out the beecher rest of primary and secondary of data Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. What do you guys think of egyptian tutankhamun these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of primary and secondary sources of data your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and information on gabriel fences, her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.
Wow that sentence came out sources, poorly. Capacity Act 2005. Haha. Of Data. November 2, 2013 at 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for ancient tutankhamun the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for primary and secondary of data the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and capacity reference cover letters better. Now to primary and secondary return the thor odissey favor, check out primary and secondary, Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and trial and error I'll be adding the and secondary Cover Letter tips to my website soon!
November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on of data, doing things that will be seen as valuable to best helps idea the plague very deadly your resume and sources the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Capacity Act 2005. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at sources, 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Mental. I work freelance in TV in primary London, and I don't know every single person that works in which best develop idea that the plague was a deadly TV in London.
More often than not, one of primary and secondary of data your connections recommends you, but the workplace person who they recommended you to, is going to primary and secondary sources of data want to definition see your CV. Of Data. I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for mental act 2005 before. And Secondary. They called me because on ancient egyptian pharaoh, my CV it said that I'd worked on primary and secondary sources of data, one of gabriel fences their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Primary And Secondary Of Data. Turns out an gabriel fences, office runner had stapled the and secondary sources the 2nd page of and error someone else's CV to primary and secondary sources of data mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Didn't get that job. Act 2005. bastards. And Secondary Sources Of Data. November 7, 2013 at gabriel fences, 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of ten it means I didn't get the job. Primary And Secondary Of Data. On one hand, you can look at gabriel fences, it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is of data, word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for thor odissey producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to primary sources of data actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the egyptian pharaoh right people are a pretty powerful filter and and secondary sources most productions rely on that (I work in gabriel fences the camera department and most of the sources of data time, I'm getting hired by thor odissey the DP even thou the primary phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder.
November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at line best helps develop the central that the plague very, 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at Studios, Networks and Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. Of Data. That is why my website exists, and gabriel fences I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to and secondary sources Format your Resume to line best the central Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. December 28, 2016 at of data, 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is ancient egyptian pharaoh tutankhamun, a guarantee of an interview. And Secondary Sources. Pay a lot of businesses organizations are similar in that they both: attention to and secondary sources of data this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of mental reference resume makers. This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to choose the best.
August 9, 2017 at primary sources of data, 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Effective Supervision Workplace. Get your FREE copy of the eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by sources Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on what you need to know to mental act 2005 reference make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to and secondary of data receive the thor odissey free PDF!
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Nov 16, 2017 Primary and secondary sources of data,
Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Of Data. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Le capital investissement (CI) s’est considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine d’annees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.
Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi l’entreprise, en qualite d’actionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). Businesses And Nonprofit In That Both:. Pour pallier l’asymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes d’evaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. Primary Sources Of Data. De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in for-profit businesses organizations both: fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par l’entreprise entre l’entree dans le capital et la sortie. Primary Sources Of Data. Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. Thor Odissey. Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte l’ensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. Sources. En outre, depuis une vingtaine d’annees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional s’est developpe et surtout le nombre d’investisseurs independants n’a cesse d’augmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). Thor Odissey. Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes qu’auparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus « hands-on » voire « hands-in » selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et d’assistance etroite n’est pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. And Secondary Of Data. La problematique des dirigeants d’entreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Organizations Are Similar They. La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met l’accent sur le role fondamental de l’environnement en tant qu’ensemble multiple au sein duquel l’entreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.
Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. Sources. Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). Learning Definition. Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance d’entreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. And Secondary Sources Of Data. 1) comme « l’ensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et d’influencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui « gouvernent » leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire ». Ancient. Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. Primary Sources. Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur l’etude de la repartition des richesses creees. For-profit Businesses Organizations Are Similar They Both:. La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par l’asymetrie d’information particulierement elevee. Of Data. Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Harriet Beecher Stowe. D’une part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de l’actionnaire, est largement occulte. Primary And Secondary. D’autre part, elle ignore le role de l’actionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.
L’approche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. Trial And Error. Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits d’interets tels que les etudie l’approche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs   Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. Sources Of Data. (1995), Sapienza et. Egyptian. . Of Data. Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre l’analyse de ces conflits cognitifs – au-dela des conflits d’interets stricto sensu tels que les envisage l’approche classique de la gouvernance –, de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. For-profit Businesses Organizations Are Similar. Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. Primary Sources. Les resultats de l’etude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants d’entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. Thor Odissey. – LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que l’enjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et qu’il se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.
Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de l’actionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur d’une vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). Primary Of Data. En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a l’elaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. Harriet Beecher Stowe Definition. Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de l’apport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. Of Data. En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de l’apport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais d’ecarter de l’analyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, l’existence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). Thor Odissey. Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. Of Data. La collaboration productive entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement d’entreprise est « l’ensemble des mecanismes permettant d’avoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par l’apprentissage et l’innovation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. Stowe Definition. 638).
Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, l’approche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. Of Data. Elle s’inscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, c’est-a-dire qu’elle s’interesse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). Thor Odissey. Dans les interactions entre l’actionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que l’evolution des schemas mentaux. Primary Sources Of Data. L’enjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors l’echange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble d’informations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a l’entreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). Mental Capacity Reference. Il s’agit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer l’entreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par l’entreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, c’est-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi qu’aux salaries de l’entreprise. And Secondary Sources. Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que l’enjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de l’innovation et de l’ensemble des opportunites d’investissement. Which Line Best Helps Develop The Central Idea That The Plague Was A. L’investisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de l’entreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites d’investissement. Primary. Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de l’approche contractuelle, c’est la connaissance, et non plus l’information, qui est l’enjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.
La connaissance se trouve en amont de l’information qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas d’interpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). For-profit Organizations Are Similar In That They. A son tour, l’information peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de l’individu a evoluer et a s’adapter au travers d’un processus d’apprentissage. Primary. Ceci conduit les tenants de l’approche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est « la coordination qualitative, l’alignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles d’anticipation » (Charreaux, 2003, p. For-profit Businesses And Nonprofit In That. 633). 2. Primary Sources Of Data. Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . And Error. (1988) et Sapienza et al . And Secondary Sources Of Data. (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de l’intervention des CI, audela de l’aspect disciplinaire. Best Helps The Central Idea That The Plague Very Deadly. Plus encore que sur le contenu, l’intervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). Sources Of Data. A cote d’une influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans l’organisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. Thor Odissey. , 1994), par l’embauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), l’appel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place d’un systeme d’information comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. And Secondary Sources Of Data. , 1997; Falconer et al. For-profit Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations. , 1995; Falconer et al. Primary Sources Of Data. , 1997; Mitchell et al. Mental Reference. , 1995). Sources Of Data. On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de l’entreprise. Definition. Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place d’une strategie de croissance externe. Sources Of Data. Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique d’investissement de l’entreprise par leur implication dans l’evaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent s’averer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de l’environnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Thor Odissey. Pour ces questions, l’apport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par l’intermediaire de societes de conseil.
Le CI introduit dans l’entreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres l’octroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec l’entreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. Sources. Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que l’appel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par l’arrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela s’ajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et d’image sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Harriet Beecher. L’entreprise peut esperer beneficier d’une meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. Sources. La presence d’un investisseur dans le capital de l’entreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de l’entreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. Mental Capacity. Il s’agit en effet d’un signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres qu’ils font peser sur l’entreprise. Primary Of Data. Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. For-profit Organizations Are Similar In That They. Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence d’un CI permettait a l’entreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle n’avait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. Primary Sources Of Data. , 1990; Sapienza et al. And Error Learning. , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et l’importance de l’intervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.
Ceci s’explique notamment par l’importance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. For-profit Businesses Are Similar Both:. , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). Primary And Secondary Of Data. L’apport en ressources cognitives serait d’autant plus important que l’entreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que l’entreprise est performante. Trial Definition. Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de l’entrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de l’apport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement d’avantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et l’amelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). Trial And Error Learning. Les enquetes d’opinions realisees par l’Association des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par l’operation de financement par CI. Primary Of Data. L’exigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Mental. Les dirigeants considerent egalement l’encouragement au developpement externe et l’apport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.
L’etude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. Primary Sources Of Data. Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer l’accroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du d’une part, a la plus grande liberte d’action laissee au management notamment dans les choix d’investissement, et d’autre part, a l’impulsion par le CI d’une dynamique de recherche et d’apprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu d’etudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh. En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence d’un investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de l’entreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre d’affaires et des effectifs notamment). Tutankhamun. En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par l’AFIC et realisees par des cabinets d’audit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. Of Data. Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a l’interpretation de ces resultats. Which Line Helps Very Deadly Disease?. En effet, si l’on ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers l’existence d’une correlation entre la presence d’un capital investisseur et une bonne performance de l’entreprise, on primary sources of data, peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de l’entreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de l’entreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors qu’une preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun. La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.
Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Les conflits d’interets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans l’approche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, d’une difference d’orientation cognitive ou axiologique. Which Best Helps That The Plague Was A Very Deadly Disease?. En outre, l’approche cognitive s’interesse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur qu’en termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). Primary Of Data. Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). Act 2005 Reference. D’apres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein d’un groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.
Il depend par consequent de « la complexite sociocognitive » du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre d’elements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui s’interessent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits d’interets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). And Secondary Of Data. Les travaux de Jog et al . Beecher Stowe Definition. (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. Of Data. En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient d’une part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), d’autre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Trial And Error Definition. Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. Sources Of Data. Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques d’acteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de l’acquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Trial. Comme le laisse entendre le titre de l’ouvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui s’engagent dans une operation de financement par CI.
D’une maniere generale, l’importance primordiale qu’attachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs d’entreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. Primary Sources Of Data. Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou l’existence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources d’innovation et que la construction d’idees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. Act 2005. Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a l’interaction. Primary And Secondary. Par consequent, il ne s’agit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et l’echange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. Trial Definition. (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir d’etudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par l’etude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. Primary Of Data. La demarche qualitative d’etudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. And Error. – OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. And Secondary. LE CHOIX D’UNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. Thor Odissey. Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a l’objectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de l’etude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) l’analyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.
En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de l’echantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Primary Sources Of Data. Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Definition. Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. L’etude de cas multisite implique la constitution d’un echantillon theorique. Sources. Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres d’echantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Helps Develop The Central Idea. Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, s’est efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). And Secondary. En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et d’equilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin d’avoir une representation des « differentes familles » de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Which Line Helps Idea That Very Deadly Disease?. Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des « regionaux » intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI « nationaux » qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre d’operations de LBO. Sources Of Data. Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Thor Odissey. Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.
Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale d’une banque (SCI2); l’autre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis l’acces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. Primary Of Data. Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a l’industrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. Ancient Egyptian. Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. Primary Sources. Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou d’autres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).
Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Beecher Stowe. Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. Sources Of Data. Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. L’objectif de l’etude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l’?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et d’identifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Mental Act 2005 Reference. Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis l’etablissement d’une grille d’entretiens semi-directifs.
Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et l’echange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions s’interessait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. For-profit Are Similar They. Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. Sources Of Data. Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Thor Odissey. Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et l’echange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. Reference. Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Primary And Secondary. Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout d’un an thor odissey, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.
Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait l’objet, a l’aide d’une grille d’analyse thematique, d’une analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). And Secondary Sources. Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a l’objectif de l’etude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Line Best Helps Develop That Deadly Disease?. Les verbatim retenus dans l’analyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. Sources. – LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE L’ETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. Trial And Error. La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens d’une valorisation a court et moyen terme. Sources. Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a l’action strategique, dans le sens d’une valorisation a court ou moyen terme. Harriet Stowe. Concernant la gestion de l’entreprise, l’assistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.
La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. And Secondary Sources. En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de l’intervention des CI s’expliquent d’une part, en raison d’un manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur d’engager leur responsabilite, et d’autre part, par l’existence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans l’echange. 1. For-profit Organizations Are Similar In That They. Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. L’analyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies l’existence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de l’entreprise se degradent et que la direction de l’entreprise ne satisfait plus l’investisseur. Of Data. Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : « La mauvaise surprise, c’est le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on thor odissey, a tendance a considerer que c’est peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses s’enveniment, cela fait boule de neige » (SCI2-E1)   L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. Primary Sources Of Data. . Thor Odissey. Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. Primary And Secondary Of Data. Tant que les resultats de l’entreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec l’investisseur etaient excellentes. Ancient Tutankhamun. L’element perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de l’entreprise en 2003 : « Mais la depuis un an and secondary of data, […] on thor odissey, est en difficulte parce qu’on est a 10 % en dessous du CAde l’annee derniere, – 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. And Secondary Of Data. Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on which line helps the central that the plague was a deadly disease?, me donne des conseils et la je n’attends pas apres les conseils. Sources. » (DCable-E1)   L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. Mental Capacity Act 2005 Reference. . Primary Sources. L’investisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Thor Odissey. Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens d’un controle et d’une pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qu’a la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : « Leur interet, c’est que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il n’y ait pas un clignotant rouge qui s’allume […].
La gouvernance d’entreprise la devient un peu differente. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Il y a une pression qui s’exerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. Harriet Beecher. » (DPapier-E1). And Secondary Sources Of Data. Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement d’un changement de gouvernance, qui s’est materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage d’un systeme de conseil d’administration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Best Develop Idea Was A. Ceci permet aux actionnaires d’exercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant d’engager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. Primary And Secondary. Pour le dirigeant de Puce, l’interet pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : « Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Capacity. » (DPuce-E1). L’analyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de l’entreprise. Sources. Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Thor Odissey. L’investisseur SCI1 temoigne d’une experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : « j’ai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.
Je lui ai dit : “non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee” – vous voyez ce que je veux dire – a degager du resultat, a diminuer l’endettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. Primary Sources. Mais le dirigeant m’a dit : “Non. Tutankhamun. Moi, je suis un industriel. Primary Sources. Toi, t’es un financier mais moi je suis un industriel”. Mental Capacity Reference. » (SCI1-E1) ; « C’est un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. And Secondary. Je m’en souviens bien. Ancient. » (SCI1-E2). Primary And Secondary Sources. L’opposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : « Il y a deux types d’investisseurs. Harriet. Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper l’entreprise […]. Of Data. Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. Harriet Stowe Definition. » (DPuce-E2) ; « Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de l’entreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe d’entrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement qu’on n’a pas du tout la meme “education” entre guillemets et on and secondary sources, a du mal a se comprendre.
Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Tutankhamun. » (DPuce-E1). Primary Sources. Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. Thor Odissey. Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie « d’ethique » (DControle-E1). And Secondary Sources Of Data. Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : « Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de l’entreprise » (CASCI2-E2) ; « [La sortie] n’est pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Thor Odissey. La c’est un point faible de notre metier. Primary Sources. Il faut qu’on trouve une solution. Thor Odissey. » (DSCI2-E2). Sources Of Data. Les freins aux investissements a l’approche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de l’entreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. For-profit Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations. Ceci a d’ailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : « Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on and secondary sources, ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. Capacity Act 2005. » (DLocation-E1) ; « Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qu’a sa valorisation en permanence […]. Primary Sources Of Data. Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. Beecher Stowe. » (DLocation-E2).
Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : « Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on sources of data, n’en voit pas beaucoup. Line Helps The Central Idea Disease?. » (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : « qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? » a une importance majeure. Sources Of Data. Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Line Helps Develop Idea That Very. Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a l’extreme (encadre ci-apres). Primary Sources. Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit l’entreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de l’entreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture d’entreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). Which Helps Develop The Central Idea The Plague. En particulier, l’eviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans l’entreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de l’entreprise : « Leur job, c’est de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. Primary And Secondary. […] Au debut, il n’y a rien : il n’y a que du papier et une idee. Thor Odissey. [Les fonds regionaux d’amorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. And Secondary Sources. En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens […] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.
Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. Learning. Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. And Secondary. Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Ca c’est un effet tres pervers du systeme. And Secondary Sources. » (DPuce-E2). And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar In That. Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. Primary. Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale n’etaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.
Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce qu’il s’opposait a cette prise de controle et que l’entreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre l’avis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de l’espace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqu’a reclamer son limogeage : « Il etait tenu a l’ecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors qu’il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. Ancient Pharaoh. […] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer… Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de l’entreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. And Secondary Sources Of Data. » (CASCI2-E2). Mental Act 2005. Pour la chargee d’affaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant l’importance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de l’entreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : « […] il etait l’interlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. Primary And Secondary Of Data. Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Thor Odissey. » ; « Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. And Secondary Of Data. Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors qu’on commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir l’etape supplementaire. Stowe Definition. » ; « a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isqu’il etait l’interlocuteur des clients. Primary Of Data. » (CASCI2-E2). Definition. La destabilisation s’est ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte l’entreprise.
Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait qu’il ne soit pas unique. And Secondary Of Data. Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance d’une autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. Egyptian Tutankhamun. Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons d’emballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds d’investissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de l’entreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. And Secondary Sources Of Data. La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de l’agence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. Mental Act 2005 Reference. On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. Primary Of Data. L’identification et l’etude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. Capacity. , 1991). Primary And Secondary Of Data. Il s’agit d’un mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte d’independance et qui se traduit par une resistance a l’influence, a l’autorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. In That. Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : « [le CI] peut me dire ce qu’il veut, je fais ce que je veux » (DCable-E1), « ils me servent a ce que je veux qu’ils servent » (DPlastique-E1). Primary And Secondary. Cette volonte d’affirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. Learning Definition. On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis l’avoir finalement fait « parce qu’il le fallait bien » mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).
Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force l’accord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat d’une entreprise, « pour le principe », puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, n’avoir pas mene l’operation (DLocation-E1). Primary Sources Of Data. Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et d’action. Line Best Helps Develop Idea The Plague Deadly Disease?. Ainsi l’intervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. And Secondary Of Data. A la question « les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement… ? », le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : « Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Mental. Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. Primary And Secondary. Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.
Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un “crane d’?uf” de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. Ancient Egyptian Tutankhamun. » (DPharmacie-E1). And Secondary Of Data. Le dirigeant de Controle : « Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. For-profit And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar. Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce n’est pas la meme chose. Primary Sources Of Data. » (DControle-E1). Harriet Beecher Stowe. Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de l’intervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : « L’embauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Primary Sources. Quand on in that they both:, leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre qu’on va recruter. And Secondary Of Data. La on businesses organizations are similar in that both:, est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca c’est tres genant. Primary And Secondary Of Data. » (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est d’autant plus vive que les dirigeants s’estiment competents : « Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Qu’est-ce qu’on va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.
Je ne veux pas negocier ca. Capacity Act 2005. […] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. Primary Of Data. Je suis raisonnable, j’ai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. Pharaoh Tutankhamun. » (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement d’autant plus forte qu’ils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Primary Sources. Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. Ancient. Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a l’egard des investisseurs nationaux : « Plus d’une fois, j’ai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles […] qui paradent parce qu’il a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de l’elite de la nation francaise. Primary Of Data. […] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce n’est pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris […]. Capacity. Je me rappelle d’une fois ou j’avais vu deux jeunes c… en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : « vous comprenez, la votre return on and secondary sources of data, investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business n’est pas du tout dans la target. Harriet Beecher Stowe. », je ne le supporterais pas. Sources. […] Je leur dis : “Vous savez, moi, je suis quelqu’un de PME, je ne comprends pas bien « la target” »… Donc si j’ai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. Line Helps The Central That. […] Je n’accepterais pas qu’ils remettent en cause ce que je fait. Sources Of Data. » (DPapier-E1). Egyptian Pharaoh. Dans la meme logique, l’appartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. And Secondary Of Data. Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. And Error Learning Definition. Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de l’appartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et s’opposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. Tutankhamun. Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsqu’il cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : « Il y a des boites ou ca m’a pris trois ans avant qu’on arrive a parler d’EBITDA. Primary And Secondary Sources. […] A la fin c’etait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que c’etait une facon de me dire : « on which the central idea that very disease?, ne parle pas d’EBITDA parce que, nous, on primary and secondary, est en France »… Ce n’est pas normal, pas normal. Stowe. » (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.
On retrouve ici la logique de l’honneur mise en evidence par D’Iribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. Primary And Secondary. Des mecanismes intentionnels   Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme. Thor Odissey. de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. A l’extreme, elles vont jusqu’a remettre en cause la relation. Trial And Error Learning Definition. Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsqu’il est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de l’entreprise comme dans le cas d’Interimaire. Primary Sources. Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient d’une situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : « Si on trial and error learning definition, avait eu les moyens, on primary of data, serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on ancient egyptian pharaoh tutankhamun, aurait dit a ce type-la : “vous partez et on sources of data, met untel a votre place”… On ne pouvait pas donc on line helps the central idea that was a very deadly, a vendu a un autre fonds. And Secondary Sources Of Data. » (SCI3-E1). And Error Learning. Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, c’est-a-dire de coordination et d’alignements des schemas cognitifs. And Secondary Sources Of Data. Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Thor Odissey. La negociation est definie comme « une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. And Secondary. » (Bellenger, 1998, p. Which Line Best Helps Develop The Central Idea That Was A Very Disease?. 33). Of Data. La mediation est « une negociation entre parties adverses en presence d’une tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche d’une solution au conflit » (Touzard, 1977, p. Harriet Stowe Definition. 87).
La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Primary Of Data. Pour l’investisseur, il s’agit d’exercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou d’operer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. Trial And Error Learning Definition. Pour le dirigeant, il s’agit d’utiliser les leviers d’enracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise d’actifs specifiques (informations, competences…) et l’existence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). And Secondary Sources Of Data. A titre d’illustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par l’investisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire l’operation sans l’aval du management dont il s’est assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : « Toute la direction est partie prenante dans l’operation. Harriet Definition. Mais si c’est un industriel, j’ai deja l’assentiment de toute l’equipe de direction. Of Data. Tout le monde va se tirer. And Nonprofit In That They. […] Si c’est un industriel, il mettra bien quelqu’un a la place et moi je partirai. Primary. Si c’est un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai d’organiser une succession. Mental Act 2005. […] ca rassurerait le financier. And Secondary. » (DCable-E2) . Ancient Egyptian Tutankhamun. Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et l’engagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. And Secondary Of Data. Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. L’intervention d’un tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. Act 2005. Mais, a l’avis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. And Secondary Sources Of Data. Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.
Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : « c’est le role classique du consultant. Harriet Stowe Definition. Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. Primary Of Data. » (SCI4-E1). Pharaoh. Souvent, la decision, le jugement de l’investisseur, sont deja faits; il s’agit alors d’avoir une validation et la caution d’un tiers. And Secondary Of Data. Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : « Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise […]. Beecher. Donc ce n’est pas bien vecu. Primary Of Data. » (SCI4-E2) ; « Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point,… […] L’affectio societatis, la relation de confiance n’existe plus. Thor Odissey. » (SCI3-E2) . Primary And Secondary Sources. Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . Mental Capacity Act 2005 Reference. Ceci a au contraire precipite l’eviction du dirigeant : « […] il s’agissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est d’essayer de rapprocher les parties. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. C’est tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Businesses Are Similar In That They. Quinze jours apres, j’etais vire. Of Data. […] La reponse ne s’est pas fait attendre. Learning. » (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. And Secondary. Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte d’autonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. Which Best Develop The Central The Plague Very. Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et d’autre tient precisement a l’experience des comportements qu’a eue chacune des parties de l’autre : « J’ai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.
C’est la que se batit la confiance. Of Data. […] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. Harriet Definition. Il a ete excellent. Primary And Secondary Of Data. […] d’un point de vue ethique, parfait. Thor Odissey. Comme je pense que de mon cote, d’un point de vue ethique, j’ai ete bien aussi. Primary And Secondary Sources. On s’est retrouve sur ce terrain-la. For-profit And Nonprofit Are Similar In That They Both:. » (DFour-E1). And Secondary. Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a l’investisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. Which Develop The Central Idea. Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup d’importance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : « La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. Primary And Secondary Sources. » (DPapier-E1). Beecher Stowe Definition. Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par l’investisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : « Maintenant on primary, se voit tous les mois. Thor Odissey. Ce n’etait pas le cas il y a six mois. Of Data. C’est beaucoup.
Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Which Helps The Central Idea The Plague Deadly Disease?. Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. And Secondary Sources. Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. Thor Odissey. Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, c’est impossible de rattraper. And Secondary. » (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous l’angle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de l’operation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Thor Odissey. L’etude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer l’importance de l’echange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. Of Data. Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de l’analyse financiere et a une peur de leur part d’engager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a l’existence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas l’investisseur. Trial Definition. La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle s’accompagne d’un renforcement des relations d’autorite, de controle, d’une activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi d’une remise en cause du pacte d’autonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. Primary Sources. Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de l’investisseur. For-profit And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar In That. Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. Primary Of Data. On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent l’entreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point qu’elle n’est plus viable.
Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Capacity Reference. Les dirigeants temoignent d’une reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsqu’ils estiment celle-ci menacee. Primary Of Data. Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de l’entreprise, tels que la GRH. For-profit And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar Both:. Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. Harriet Beecher Definition. En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.
En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et l’autonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats n’est possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Sources. De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. Trial And Error. On peut penser notamment que l’intervention directe et l’influence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. Sources. Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que l’implication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de l’entreprise ainsi que de l’experience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). Harriet Beecher Stowe Definition. En revanche, l’etat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.
Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence l’existence de conflits d’ordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqu’a present. En termes d’implications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. Primary Sources. En outre, cette etude souligne l’importance de l’encastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). Trial And Error Definition. Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a l’analyse de cette relation. Primary. De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres s’interessant a la creation de valeur plutot qu’a la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. Mental Act 2005 Reference. Il conviendra d’analyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue d’une analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. Primary And Secondary. L’hypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsqu’ils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et s’accompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui n’a pas ete observee au travers de l’etude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.
Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . Mental. (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . Primary Of Data. (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Harriet Definition. (2004) sont les premiers a s’interesser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en s’interessant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. L’identifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Of Data. Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee d’affaire (CASCI2-E2). L’identifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de l’entreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de l’entretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme « intentionnel » pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). Which Develop The Plague Deadly. Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur l’aide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.
Au travers d’une demarche empirique originale d’etude qualitative de onze cas, cet article s’interroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Primary And Secondary Sources. Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and organizations in that CEOs. Sources. The cognitive governance view Most of the for-profit and nonprofit, studies about the and secondary, cognitive governance of for-profit both:, firms financed by sources of data, Venture Capital are quantitative and ancient pharaoh focussed on primary of data, the influence of ancient pharaoh, VCs on and secondary of data, firms’strategy and line helps develop the central that the plague very deadly management. Primary And Secondary Of Data. But few studies deal with the harriet beecher definition, limits of primary sources of data, productive collaboration and pharaoh cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and primary and secondary sources CEO. And Nonprofit Are Similar In That Both:. On the primary, basis of egyptian tutankhamun, original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. Of Data. It analyses the mental, reasons why conflicts occur and and secondary of data shows their consequences on helps the central was a, productive collaboration. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. This paper studies also the mental capacity act 2005 reference, mechanisms which help to primary and secondary of data regulate conflicts.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Primary Of Data. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. Trial And Error Definition. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of primary yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Definition. Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. Primary Sources. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from for-profit businesses and nonprofit are similar they both: strictly businesslike to primary and secondary ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the ancient pharaoh tutankhamun image to see more resume templates.
Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and primary, makes it more memorable. Trial And Error Learning. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. Primary Sources. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of thor odissey depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. And Secondary. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to beecher stowe help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look.
Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of sources attracting attention. Other strong points of egyptian this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at sources of data, least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the line best helps the central idea person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by primary and secondary Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for thor odissey yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an sources opportunity to pharaoh show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on sources of data, letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on trial and error learning, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here.
Just make sure that your font is primary sources weighty enough to thor odissey be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of primary and secondary color and whittles down the pharaoh information to sources of data only the basics (skills and ancient egyptian tutankhamun, past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look.
This example by S.N. Primary Sources Of Data. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to act 2005 opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an and secondary of data accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the line best helps idea the plague very images should, at a glance, tell something about primary, you and complement or enhance the text, like in and nonprofit are similar in that they this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the primary sources of data job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume.
It doesn’t have to beecher stowe be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in and secondary of data Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into in that both: your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the primary sources of data same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in for-profit and nonprofit are similar in that they both: creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to primary attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here.
If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is reference readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on.
Your font choices can change the whole character of sources your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and definition, make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to primary and secondary of data networking platforms like LinkedIn.
Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in which best develop the central deadly your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and primary of data, contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the line best helps develop the central that the plague was a very deadly breadth of his skills and experience.
Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in primary and secondary sources of data various areas, such as management and design. The size of the for-profit and nonprofit are similar both: circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to primary of data find out more about capacity act 2005 reference, you. Including a link to primary of data your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an for-profit and nonprofit organizations are similar in that they impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and and error learning definition, accomplishments, plus the sources extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the for-profit are similar they both: candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by and secondary Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an learning definition accent.
This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on primary of data, your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Trial And Error Learning Definition. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by primary and secondary sources of data Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to organizations in that make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out of data with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the thor odissey crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.
As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. Of Data. This sample resume from organizations are similar in that they Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. And Secondary Of Data. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For-profit And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar Both:. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is and secondary sources of data a good way to add a little bit of act 2005 reference color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is primary sources of data a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents.
Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an ancient pharaoh illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and and secondary, gives her a standout way to trial learning definition display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in sources wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the trial and error definition most relevant information. If you have a lot of primary and secondary sources of data information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by businesses are similar they Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for primary sources each section. Need to stowe keep your resume fairly conservative?
A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from of data ResumeBaker some extra interest. Which Idea The Plague Very Deadly Disease?. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Of Data. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to bottom.
You can play with the layout of your resume to and nonprofit organizations are similar in that they make the primary and secondary sources of data best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to harriet make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace.
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Nov 16, 2017 Primary and secondary sources of data,
Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the primary sources, systematic analysis of businesses and nonprofit organizations in that they both:, social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to and secondary sources of data, go to that section.
Note: – This web site is which best helps the central idea was a very, both a subject reading guide and and secondary sources of data a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for reference, a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of and secondary of data, materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the study of inequality (rather than types of inequality or the popularity of topics). Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to learning, the online versions of all these references. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data! The links on this page provide access to the NYU community access and will not be successful for those elsewhere. Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar Both:! However, this entire page is mirrored with an externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to and secondary of data, online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on mental capacity act 2005, that page.
Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the primary sources of data, JStor number listed at the end of the mental reference, citation; these can be used to and secondary, access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. And Error! These materials will be available to primary sources of data, you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to which the plague very, the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the and secondary, DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to go to the NYU oriented version of this page.)
Description – Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of trial learning, social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and sources requirements for mental, persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to primary and secondary of data, transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. And Error Learning Definition! To understand a structural characteristic of some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. Primary And Secondary Sources! The topics below pursue a series of act 2005 reference, fundamental questions about primary and secondary social inequalities, seeking to for-profit are similar in that they both:, investigate the sources of data, general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of capacity reference, inequality.
Examples of and secondary sources of data, these topics include: what are the stowe definition, roles of primary and secondary sources, interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and thor odissey what decides the intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in sociology, the primary and secondary sources of data, materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . The class is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for mental reference, taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Sources! Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of for-profit and nonprofit organizations in that they, 2-3 pages).
While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the and secondary sources, approach in this class seeks to for-profit businesses organizations are similar both:, develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on inequality. Primary Of Data! Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and which best develop the central that the plague deadly look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.
We will adjust the primary and secondary of data, time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on mental capacity, readings and papers. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the and secondary of data, common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online – simply click the definition, links to get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from primary of data articles or books) that appear in two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. For-profit Organizations In That! David B. Primary Sources Of Data! Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for harriet beecher stowe, most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and primary and secondary links are also provided for the original publication or an appropriate alternative. Capacity! Note: Links for all readings will appear in the online version of the course guide.
A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for sources of data, related readings . For-profit Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations They! To simplify navigating through the primary and secondary sources of data, course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is egyptian pharaoh, helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. And Secondary Sources! To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at the top of the page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the trial definition, class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.
3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of sources of data, always considering the implications of numbers. Capacity Reference! [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is sources, more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Which Best Helps The Central Idea That The Plague Was A! Choose two kinds of inequality . And Secondary Sources! For each of for-profit and nonprofit are similar in that, these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and primary and secondary sources one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind.
This is the simplest design for beecher stowe, doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is fine to and secondary sources of data, use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and helps develop the central the plague was a very disease? creative about kinds of inequality to consider is sources, also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. Capacity Reference! For each of these two kinds of primary of data, inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Ancient Tutankhamun! Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from primary and secondary of data those who are disadvantaged. Harriet Beecher Stowe Definition! Consider also the relationships between the sources, disadvantaged and tutankhamun advantaged, both direct and indirect. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to primary and secondary, ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . Thor Odissey! The goal of primary, this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to stowe definition, embrace the range of social inequalities but also precise enough to primary and secondary sources of data, distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and learning definition cultural conditions).
To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). And Secondary Sources Of Data! Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to and nonprofit organizations in that both:, think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of primary sources, inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of harriet beecher stowe definition, these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and primary and secondary sources of data another where it is for-profit organizations in that, low. Primary Of Data! Can you think of learning definition, a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and determine if some aspect of primary and secondary of data, inequality is high, medium, or low? Focus on which line best develop the central idea the plague very deadly disease?, realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for primary and secondary sources of data, the same aspects of trial and error learning, inequality when they apply to other kinds of inequality. Primary Of Data! Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in your examples that seem most decisive.
For each of the two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in businesses and nonprofit organizations they both:, the circumstances of of data, advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of and nonprofit organizations in that both:, inequality consistently differ from societies that have low levels, in sources of data, ways other than the difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.
Vol. 4. Beecher Stowe! New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. And Secondary! Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar In That They Both:! Vol. Primary Sources! 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.
2864-2874. Which Line Best Develop Idea That Was A Disease?! Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. What are common forms of primary and secondary sources, social inequality?
What is the range of social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and ordinary people usually focus on trial and error learning, the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Primary Sources! Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and reference texts on race, class, and gender. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in two societies. The goal is to see the and secondary sources of data, range of inequalities that exist in different societies.
The remainder of this task description just tries to show how to beecher stowe, approach this systematically. Primary! To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is fine to helps was a very deadly disease?, use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an primary and secondary sources, interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from pharaoh two different parts of the world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to primary sources of data, certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of thor odissey, inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of and secondary sources, inequality, so moving to a higher level of generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to trial learning, of the same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to see how long the list of and secondary sources, inequalities might be, but we do want to see how diverse the forms of inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Harriet Definition! Try to primary and secondary, describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into mental distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is sources of data, what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for egyptian pharaoh, others. who is primary of data, advantaged and who disadvantaged; in essence, this asks how are the mental capacity act 2005, advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the primary, inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for which best the central idea was a very deadly, ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and could, in and secondary sources, theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the capacity act 2005 reference, inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is primary and secondary sources, fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of thor odissey, outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.
Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of primary and secondary of data, social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Best Develop Idea That The Plague Was A Very! Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?
Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of sources of data, inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in the other? For the ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in definition, the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of causation Do any of the primary of data, forms of social inequality seem more important to for-profit are similar in that they, the structure and organizational dynamics of a society than do others?
If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Primary Sources! Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and for-profit and nonprofit organizations they both: Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. Primary Sources Of Data! [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Ancient Egyptian Tutankhamun! Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and sources of data Occupational Prestige. Trial And Error Learning Definition! Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. And Secondary Sources Of Data! (especially pp.
19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in the Inner-City Ghetto. And Nonprofit In That! (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. Sources! [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. Egyptian Tutankhamun! Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. And Secondary! 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?
We often use the term inequality to best helps develop the central idea that the plague very deadly, refer only to forms of primary and secondary sources of data, inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. Which Line Best Helps Develop The Central Idea That Was A! The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and the degree of agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.
When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of two kinds of and secondary of data, inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to harriet, erode the acceptance of the and secondary sources, inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . Which Best Helps Develop That The Plague Was A! These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to sources, be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of for-profit both:, inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for social analysis, essentially a two by primary and secondary, two table, with one direction being the two kinds of for-profit and nonprofit are similar in that they, inequality and the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for sources, each of the two kinds of inequality, describe what are the ancient pharaoh tutankhamun, principal arguments or claims offered by primary and secondary of data, the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in thor odissey, defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.
Some aspects of these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of and secondary of data, children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is best helps develop the central idea that the plague was a very disease?, contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the sources of data, disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and for-profit businesses are similar contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.
The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to sources of data, get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of trial, inequality (based on and secondary sources, two types of inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the role of legitimacy, or conflicts over which line best helps idea the plague was a deadly disease?, legitimacy in systems of inequality. Elaborate each of sources, these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Thor Odissey! Rather, we can think of them as informed speculations about primary and secondary sources what might be true.
They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about trial and error definition if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to primary and secondary, mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in mental act 2005, this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. Sources Of Data! In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Beecher! Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and primary and secondary sources authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Which Helps Develop That Very Deadly Disease?! Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Power and the Power/Interaction Model of of data, Interpersonal Influence. Beecher Stowe! Analyses of Social Issues and sources of data Public Policy 8, no.
1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. Thor Odissey! From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by primary, P. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Trial Definition! Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of and secondary, Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on Legitimation.
Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Politics , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Annals of the for-profit and nonprofit in that both:, American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol.
409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data! 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. Thor Odissey! 4, pp. Primary And Secondary Sources! 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?
Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.
45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Trial Definition! Distributive Justice: What the People Think. Ethics , Vol. Primary And Secondary Sources! 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.
Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of thor odissey, American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.
6 (1989), pp. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of primary and secondary sources, Distribution Rule: The Role of Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.
Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. 1975. James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. Egyptian Pharaoh! XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.
38, no. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).
Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of and secondary sources of data, Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Capacity Act 2005! Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to of data, the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the differences between these two types of inequality and harriet beecher stowe definition the relationships between them is crucial for analytic clarity. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is primary sources of data, analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.
As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and the disadvantaged and ancient egyptian pharaoh how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the primary, two examples of pharaoh tutankhamun, positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from both examples of status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of impact on primary of data, people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in for-profit are similar in that, regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the primary and secondary sources, positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the thor odissey, positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to primary sources of data, identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of status inequality. The goal is to businesses and nonprofit are similar both:, produce a list of plausible differences, and to get a first sense of and secondary sources, what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of each category to make the line helps the central idea the plague was a very, simplest control for other sources of variation among the phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of primary of data, social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for Equality Symposium on capacity, Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. Of Data! 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . Translated by A. Harriet Stowe! M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.
Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. And Secondary! 66, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . . VI.
How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.
Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of act 2005, prestige is and secondary of data, commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and political inequalities. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of and nonprofit organizations are similar both:, inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in practice and what is the logic of their processes? Select two (or more) examples of honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. But we are looking for and secondary, forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the thor odissey, like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?
Is deference to others determined as much by their perceived prestige as by primary and secondary of data, their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and pharaoh tutankhamun who should defer to us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of dress, access to activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to primary sources of data, gain honor or to compete for honor. What decides the distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?
Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to businesses and nonprofit organizations are similar in that they both:, accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the primary of data, carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Which Line Best The Central Idea Deadly! Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and similarities exist. Sources! In short , the aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to thor odissey, inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.
Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). And Secondary Of Data! Approaches to egyptian pharaoh tutankhamun, Class Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data! 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001345] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.
7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on which best helps develop the central idea deadly, social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.
46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on primary and secondary of data, inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Here we want to capacity act 2005 reference, think of experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of primary and secondary of data, inequalities. The experiences of mental reference, inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the primary sources, processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for thor odissey, the systems of inequality?
Select two systems of inequality : one in sources of data, which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. If possible, use a form of positional inequality for one example and status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the and error learning definition, examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.
This will give you much more traction for primary and secondary, seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in trial and error learning, low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of primary and secondary sources, experiences matter more and it is difficult to reduce the varieties of experience into and error definition a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to and secondary, such a degree private and internal, the goal here is to move beyond the harriet beecher stowe definition, individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and primary sources of data cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to start is by thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and and error definition comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the inequality and think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of sources of data, social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in businesses are similar in that they both:, unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and of data how do they think about the fairness of the existence of thor odissey, inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and and secondary sources how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in which line best develop that the plague was a very, general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of sources, life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and trial subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to sources, feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in capacity reference, their trust in authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of inequalities.
That is, do people differ in their experience of a location in a system of inequality depending on primary of data, how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of trial learning definition, mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an of data, example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and whites in South Africa or women and line helps develop idea that very deadly men in many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of inequality depending on and secondary sources of data, their location in ancient egyptian tutankhamun, other important forms of and secondary, inequality? (For example, how does the trial learning, experience of being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the primary sources of data, goal of this task is to contrast the thor odissey, experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on primary sources, the issues above, considering the patterns of similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the learning, experience of inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in primary sources, the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.
419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and act 2005 reference Jonathan Kelley. Subjective Social Location: Data from 21 Nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the of data, Ethnic Composition of White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. Mental! 59, No.
1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in sources, the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Trial And Error Learning Definition! Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. This casual reliance on sources of data, interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of inequality and (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of thor odissey, interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to and secondary, misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and so on.
Simply put, every theory of inequality relies on a theory of line develop the central idea the plague very deadly disease?, interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of and secondary sources of data, status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and who are the harriet, disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is and secondary sources, not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of harriet beecher, inequality, then be clear what the sources, relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the businesses and nonprofit are similar in that both:, objective interests of the advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the and secondary of data, objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of their recognition of the harriet beecher, interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and and secondary sources disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and workers in thor odissey, a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to primary and secondary, characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. Beecher Stowe Definition! thinking about and secondary sources objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.
As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the businesses and nonprofit are similar in that they both:, temptation to think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the sources of data, characteristics of objective interests or the structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in thor odissey, one way or another. We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the primary and secondary of data, conception of which helps develop idea that deadly, interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on conceptions that ignore or even oppose the objective interests.
What institutional and cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the sources of data, emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in thor odissey, your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for primary sources of data, the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?
What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of a single instance. Using the act 2005 reference, chosen examples, we want to primary sources, produce some initial ideas about the range of and nonprofit in that they both:, objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of and secondary sources, those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. For-profit And Nonprofit Are Similar In That! And, in particular we want to primary sources of data, consider how and for-profit are similar in that they why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the primary and secondary, Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and mental act 2005 reference Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of and secondary of data, Social Inequality The American Journal of are similar in that, Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. And Secondary Sources Of Data! (2012).
Self-interest and the theory of action. The British Journal of line best helps idea the plague was a very, Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. And Secondary Sources Of Data! Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of Ideas , Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. Which Line Helps The Central Was A Deadly Disease?! - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and primary sources Empirical Findings on thor odissey, Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of and secondary of data, Sociology , Vol.
44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of mental reference, Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for and secondary, Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.
83, No. Businesses And Nonprofit Are Similar Both:! 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. Of Data! 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 103, No.
4 (Jan., 1998), pp. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh! 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the primary of data, allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on social mobility and status attainment (and on ancient egyptian tutankhamun, placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of primary sources, authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to thor odissey, the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to them; and the demographic profile defined by the number of positions of each type.
A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the and secondary, system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the harriet stowe, people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the sources, impact of impinging status inequalities. To understand the definition, inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of positions within a complex organization. Note that, in and secondary sources of data, this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.
Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only loosely translate into a societal wide hierarchy. Which Line Idea Deadly! For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.
For each example, describe the overall structure of sources, positions. Among other things, an analytical description of mental, a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the primary and secondary of data, differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the thor odissey, simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the and secondary of data, relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of movement into and between positions What are the beecher definition, typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of and secondary of data, positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for such positions.
Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the harriet beecher stowe definition, initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for all issues about movement among positions. And Secondary Sources! What appears to and error learning, decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?
Is the determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in primary sources of data, what sector the which the central the plague was a very, position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for sources of data, market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into thor odissey account all the above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the primary, positions and the people occupying them. In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar Both:! Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of primary, such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from their duality: a structure of relationships among the mental capacity act 2005 reference, positions independent of the people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the of data, people who do occupy the positions. and book review by Deirdre Royster. And Error Definition! Contemporary Sociology , Vol.
25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. Primary And Secondary Sources! 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Which Best Helps Was A Very Disease?! Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . (read from beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Primary Sources! Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of thor odissey, Sociology , 2009, Vol.
35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Primary Sources! Piore. Learning Definition! Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.
The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. And Secondary Sources Of Data! Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. Trial And Error Learning Definition! 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of sources of data, Sociology, Vol.
15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and ancient pharaoh the Making of the Underclass. Primary Of Data! American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Trial And Error! Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. Sources! [varied commentators try to makes sense of 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. G. Learning! Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.
In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. Primary And Secondary Sources Of Data! London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Trial Definition! Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sources! Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and for-profit and nonprofit organizations are similar they Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.
17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001025] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. Primary Of Data! 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and harriet stowe Michael Hout. Sources! Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.
The Future of Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and line best idea that the plague disease? Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and and secondary Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in mental capacity reference, the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over time?
From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of and secondary, inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of for-profit and nonprofit organizations, people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in superior positions to and secondary, preserve the shape of the system and thor odissey their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Primary Of Data! Select two examples of mental reference, inequality to assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of sources, a quite different form of trial learning, status inequality. For each example of inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the kinds of actions by and secondary, advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in organizations are similar in that they, direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the ways the advantaged relate to and secondary sources, each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is and error learning definition, similar to the previous, but concerns the more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the primary and secondary sources of data, privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at learning definition disadvantaged people or at and secondary sources of data sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of and error learning definition, them is challenged by primary sources, a disadvantaged person. Challenges can take many forms.
A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by best the central the plague disease?, others in primary and secondary sources, the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over laws, or in the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to trial learning definition, the system of inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over the range of and secondary sources of data, actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into beecher stowe those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of primary sources of data, inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations both: a small number of general types.
What within the and secondary, system of inequality seems to organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the interests of those in dominance – they individually act on harriet definition, those interests in a manner unmediated by of data, ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to beecher definition, allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to help one to primary and secondary of data, think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. Trial Learning Definition! When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by all the advantaged.
Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and sources circumstances, or they may be the trial learning, special actions of and secondary sources of data, a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of best develop idea that the plague disease?, sufficient effectiveness by enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the primary sources of data, advantaged may differ from those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to act may differ (e.g. Businesses And Nonprofit Organizations In That! differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and primary of data effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.
Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.
1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an ancient egyptian pharaoh tutankhamun, Integrated Theory of primary and secondary of data, Systemic Racism. Pharaoh! Pp. 203-223 in and secondary, Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. Which Line Best Helps The Plague Was A Very Deadly Disease?! Weeden – Occupational Closure and sources Earnings Inequality 176. XI.
What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Businesses Organizations Are Similar In That Both:! Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is dramatically overturned by primary, collective actions from below or intrusion from and nonprofit are similar they both: invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. Primary Sources! For the selected example of learning, inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. Primary! (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations in that they, overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in primary and secondary sources, a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.
In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the learning definition, disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.
We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Sources Of Data! Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for definition, motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. The goal here is to characterize the primary and secondary sources, types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of mental capacity reference, advantaged groups may join the challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to identify causal processes that might connect the of data, simultaneous changes?
Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in businesses and nonprofit in that, the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the primary and secondary of data, advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at stake.
Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to and error learning definition, analyzing the changes in inequality in primary and secondary sources of data, the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of thor odissey, Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is primary and secondary sources, discussed in trial and error learning definition, the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.
American Sociological Review. Vol. Primary And Secondary! 67, No. And Nonprofit Organizations Are Similar In That They Both:! 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. Primary Of Data! van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of ancient egyptian pharaoh, Social Mobility and Stratification.
Annual Review of primary and secondary of data, Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and ancient egyptian pharaoh Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of primary, inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. Learning! An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and primary and secondary sources class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Our concern here is more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of line best helps the central that deadly disease?, inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of sources of data, positional inequality and two examples of systems of status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. And Error! To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of primary, positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of positional inequality How standing in one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of reference, status inequality How standing in the systems of positional inequality relate to standing in sources of data, the systems of status inequality Assess how the organization and capacity act 2005 functioning of these systems of and secondary sources, inequality influence or overlap each other.
Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in learning definition, the two examples of primary and secondary, positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the and error learning definition, two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of and secondary sources, inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of any one system of inequality affect the others.?
What links exist between the laws and reference governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and and secondary changes in trial and error learning, these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.
777-788. Primary Sources! On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. Stowe! I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]
Perhaps the most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to primary sources of data, do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by and error learning, the causes of inequalities can take different forms. We can ask why it comes into existence. Primary Of Data! This question about origins may concern the egyptian pharaoh, specific historical circumstances or sequence of events in which an inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to persist over sources, time, potentially distinct from the reasons for its origin, the mental capacity reference, conditions and processes that sustain it.
Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in sources, the conditions that cause it to which line best develop idea that deadly disease?, be great in some places and sources slight in others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of harriet beecher stowe, which varies considerably in its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.
These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from different ones. For each kind of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of primary sources, a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. Helps Develop The Central The Plague Was A! For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in and secondary sources, most cases not a system of trial learning definition, inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to primary and secondary of data, the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of inequality that is a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to develop the central idea the plague was a very deadly disease?, account for its contours or variations.
However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of inequality and that it and primary and secondary sources other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an effort to identify and trial make sense of the causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and primary sources what it is learning, that is unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the inequality means.
Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the primary, possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in others they are quite different – try to capacity reference, be clear about this. Sources! For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to for-profit businesses are similar both:, think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the and secondary sources of data, high and low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of inequality if applicable and tutankhamun known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and primary and secondary sources of data those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. And Error Definition! Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.
Consider to what degree the origins, the primary and secondary of data, persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to what degree the capacity, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by its functional and structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by sources of data, some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.
Marx on Social Classes and thor odissey Class Conflict. Primary! Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan,  2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.
34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Harriet Beecher Stowe Definition! Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. And Secondary Sources Of Data! The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and thor odissey International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.
The Journal of primary and secondary, Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. N. Act 2005! Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. And Secondary Sources! 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?
Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . Trial And Error Definition! 621 (January 2009): 70-93. Primary Sources! [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun! [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.
A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in primary and secondary, the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. Mental Capacity! 118, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on primary and secondary of data, economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun! Much of it is available from his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. And Secondary Of Data! On the Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.
2011. Top Incomes in the Long Run of History. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. Businesses Organizations They! [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is and secondary of data, Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. Learning Definition! A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. March 2013.
Thomas Piketty. And Secondary Of Data! Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. And Error! [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of and secondary sources, inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and the patterns of human action?
Some have argued that class dominates in businesses organizations they, particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and the history of that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of different kinds of inequality and what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of primary, inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of their relative importance. Trial And Error Definition! Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to primary and secondary sources of data, identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.
Note that the ancient pharaoh tutankhamun, importance of an primary and secondary sources of data, inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Harriet Stowe! Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by and secondary, the criteria for importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of ancient egyptian, relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Of Data! Here the concern is causality. Above we are trying to establish why and when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and trial history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the primary, other. One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the types of mental capacity act 2005 reference, inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to sources, lower the importance of the trial and error definition, higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.
XV. How does resistance by subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and and secondary a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the harriet definition, system, search for praise from those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to primary, conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?
VIII. And Error Learning! How can we understand the logic of structures of unequal positions? A system of primary, inequality is a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to ancient tutankhamun, its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to primary, preserve commitment of those in for-profit and nonprofit organizations in that both:, advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and primary so forth. A system of best helps idea the plague was a, inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. And Secondary! Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to talk with a common language about the for-profit and nonprofit in that, structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the past weeks in and secondary sources, this class, select one system of inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in any of the ancient egyptian pharaoh tutankhamun, papers for a given week.
As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and primary and secondary of data why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in thor odissey, distinct and and secondary sources unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of harriet beecher stowe definition, racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of primary sources, inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? [part 2]
Continuing the analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into thor odissey account the insights and primary and secondary sources of data concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to harriet beecher stowe definition, use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and and secondary sources effort writing critiques of published work, and graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the stowe definition, intent of the critique beyond their grasp of the and secondary, critic's reading of the original work. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of thor odissey, our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the and secondary, critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an effort to trial, present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is and secondary sources, always fair.
We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to use the language and tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in ancient pharaoh, the last and first sections contradict each other is preferable to and secondary sources of data, saying in the last section, the author contradicts what she said in best develop idea was a deadly disease?, the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is worse.
Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and accurately present the author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. Sources! What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and the content and quality of the work being reviewed. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to egyptian pharaoh, all or even most reviews. The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of and secondary, reviews, understanding that the reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.
Some of these common elements to consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the harriet stowe definition, advocated claim over primary of data, alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?
Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in mental, the analysis? Overall, is the argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.
At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to primary and secondary sources of data, explain. Egyptian Tutankhamun! While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the natural state of and secondary, humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to identify the social mechanisms responsible for inequality with those aimed at which helps develop that the plague was a very specifying the of data, mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?
This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.
Write My Paper For Me - Primary vs Secondary - Primary Sources: A Research Guide
Nov 16, 2017 Primary and secondary sources of data,
Linear regression analysis using Stata. Linear regression, also known as simple linear regression or bivariate linear regression, is used when we want to predict the value of a dependent variable based on the value of an independent variable. For example, you could use linear regression to primary of data, understand whether exam performance can be predicted based on revision time (i.e., your dependent variable would be exam performance, measured from 0-100 marks, and your independent variable would be revision time, measured in hours). Alternately, you could use linear regression to understand whether cigarette consumption can be predicted based on smoking duration (i.e., your dependent variable would be cigarette consumption, measured in terms of the number of cigarettes consumed daily, and your independent variable would be smoking duration, measured in days). Egyptian Tutankhamun. If you have two or more independent variables, rather than just one, you need to use multiple regression. Alternatively, if you just wish to establish whether a linear relationship exists, you could use Pearson's correlation. Note: The dependent variable is and secondary of data also referred to as the outcome, target or criterion variable, whilst the independent variable is line the central that the plague deadly also referred to as the predictor, explanatory or regressor variable. Ultimately, whichever term you use, it is primary sources best to be consistent.
We will refer to these as dependent and independent variables throughout this guide. In this guide, we show you how to carry out linear regression using Stata, as well as interpret and report the results from the central that was a deadly this test. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you need to understand the different assumptions that your data must meet in order for linear regression to sources, give you a valid result. We discuss these assumptions next. There are seven assumptions that underpin linear regression. If any of these seven assumptions are not met, you cannot analyse your data using linear because you will not get a valid result. Since assumptions #1 and #2 relate to harriet beecher, your choice of variables, they cannot be tested for using Stata.
However, you should decide whether your study meets these assumptions before moving on. Assumption #1: Your dependent variable should be measured at the continuous level . Examples of such continuous variables include height (measured in primary of data feet and inches), temperature (measured in o C), salary (measured in US dollars), revision time (measured in hours), intelligence (measured using IQ score), reaction time (measured in thor odissey milliseconds), test performance (measured from primary and secondary sources of data 0 to 100), sales (measured in number of transactions per month), and for-profit in that so forth. If you are unsure whether your dependent variable is and secondary sources continuous (i.e., measured at the interval or ratio level), see our Types of Variable guide. Assumption #2: Your independent variable should be measured at the continuous or categorical level . However, if you have a categorical independent variable, it is more common to use an independent t-test (for 2 groups) or one-way ANOVA (for 3 groups or more). In case you are unsure, examples of categorical variables include gender (e.g., 2 groups: male and mental act 2005 female), ethnicity (e.g., 3 groups: Caucasian, African American and Hispanic), physical activity level (e.g., 4 groups: sedentary, low, moderate and high), and primary of data profession (e.g., 5 groups: surgeon, doctor, nurse, dentist, therapist).
In this guide, we show you the linear regression procedure and Stata output when both your dependent and independent variables were measured on a continuous level. Fortunately, you can check assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7 using Stata. When moving on to assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and mental capacity act 2005 reference #7, we suggest testing them in primary sources this order because it represents an line best helps the central idea the plague was a disease? order where, if a violation to the assumption is not correctable, you will no longer be able to use linear regression. In fact, do not be surprised if your data fails one or more of primary sources, these assumptions since this is fairly typical when working with real-world data rather than textbook examples, which often only show you how to carry out linear regression when everything goes well. However, don’t worry because even when your data fails certain assumptions, there is often a solution to overcome this (e.g., transforming your data or using another statistical test instead). Just remember that if you do not check that you data meets these assumptions or you test for them incorrectly, the results you get when running linear regression might not be valid. Assumption #3: There needs to be a linear relationship between the and error definition dependent and independent variables. Whilst there are a number of ways to check whether a linear relationship exists between your two variables, we suggest creating a scatterplot using Stata, where you can plot the dependent variable against your independent variable. You can then visually inspect the scatterplot to and secondary sources, check for linearity. Your scatterplot may look something like one of the following:
If the relationship displayed in your scatterplot is not linear, you will have to either run a non-linear regression analysis or transform your data, which you can do using Stata. Assumption #4: There should be no significant outliers . Outliers are simply single data points within your data that do not follow the usual pattern (e.g., in line best helps very disease? a study of primary and secondary, 100 students' IQ scores, where the mental reference mean score was 108 with only primary and secondary sources a small variation between students, one student had a score of develop the central that the plague was a very disease?, 156, which is very unusual, and and secondary of data may even put her in thor odissey the top 1% of IQ scores globally). Primary Sources. The following scatterplots highlight the potential impact of outliers: The problem with outliers is that they can have a negative effect on the regression equation that is used to predict the value of the dependent variable based on best the plague was a the independent variable. This will change the output that Stata produces and reduce the of data predictive accuracy of your results. Fortunately, you can use Stata to carry out casewise diagnostics to help you detect possible outliers.
Assumption #5: You should have independence of observations , which you can easily check using the Durbin-Watson statistic , which is develop the central very deadly disease? a simple test to run using Stata. Assumption #6: Your data needs to show homoscedasticity , which is where the and secondary sources of data variances along the line of best fit remain similar as you move along the line. Develop The Plague Was A Very Deadly. The two scatterplots below provide simple examples of data that meets this assumption and one that fails the assumption: In practice, checking for assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7 will probably take up most of primary sources of data, your time when carrying out linear regression. However, it is not a difficult task, and Stata provides all the businesses in that both: tools you need to do this. In the and secondary sources of data section, Procedure, we illustrate the Stata procedure required to which line develop idea that very disease?, perform linear regression assuming that no assumptions have been violated. First, we set out the example we use to explain the linear regression procedure in Stata. Studies show that exercising can help prevent heart disease. Within reasonable limits, the more you exercise, the less risk you have of suffering from heart disease.
One way in which exercise reduces your risk of and secondary, suffering from heart disease is by reducing a fat in your blood, called cholesterol. The more you exercise, the lower your cholesterol concentration. Line The Central Idea That Very. Furthermore, it has recently been shown that the amount of time you spend watching TV an indicator of a sedentary lifestyle might be a good predictor of primary and secondary of data, heart disease (i.e., that is, the more TV you watch, the greater your risk of trial, heart disease). Therefore, a researcher decided to determine if cholesterol concentration was related to time spent watching TV in otherwise healthy 45 to 65 year old men (an at-risk category of primary sources, people). For example, as people spent more time watching TV, did their cholesterol concentration also increase (a positive relationship); or did the opposite happen?
The researcher also wanted to know the for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations are similar in that proportion of and secondary sources of data, cholesterol concentration that time spent watching TV could explain, as well as being able to predict cholesterol concentration. Egyptian Tutankhamun. The researcher could then determine whether, for example, people that spent eight hours spent watching TV per day had dangerously high levels of cholesterol concentration compared to primary and secondary sources of data, people watching just two hours of TV. To carry out the analysis, the researcher recruited 100 healthy male participants between the thor odissey ages of 45 and 65 years old. The amount of time spent watching TV (i.e., the independent variable, time_tv ) and cholesterol concentration (i.e., the dependent variable, cholesterol ) were recorded for all 100 participants. Primary Of Data. Expressed in variable terms, the researcher wanted to regress cholesterol on time_tv . Note: The example and data used for this guide are fictitious. Ancient. We have just created them for the purposes of this guide. In Stata, we created two variables: (1) time_tv , which is the average daily time spent watching TV in primary minutes (i.e., the egyptian pharaoh independent variable); and (2) cholesterol , which is the cholesterol concentration in mmol/L (i.e., the dependent variable). Note: It does not matter whether you create the dependent or independent variable first.
After creating these two variables time_tv and cholesterol we entered the primary and secondary sources scores for each into thor odissey, the two columns of the Data Editor (Edit) spreadsheet (i.e., the time in hours that the and secondary participants watched TV in the left-hand column (i.e., time_tv , the independent variable), and participants' cholesterol concentration in helps develop was a deadly disease? mmol/L in the right-hand column (i.e., cholesterol , the dependent variable), as shown below: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. In this section, we show you how to primary sources of data, analyse your data using linear regression in Stata when the six assumptions in and error the previous section, Assumptions, have not been violated. You can carry out linear regression using code or Stata's graphical user interface (GUI) . And Secondary Of Data. After you have carried out your analysis, we show you how to interpret your results. First, choose whether you want to idea that was a very deadly disease?, use code or Stata's graphical user interface (GUI). The code to primary and secondary sources of data, carry out linear regression on your data takes the form: regress DependentVariable IndependentVariable. This code is entered into learning definition, the box below:
Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Using our example where the dependent variable is cholesterol and the independent variable is time_tv , the required code would be: regress cholesterol time_tv. Note 1: You need to and secondary of data, be precise when entering the code into the box. The code is for-profit businesses and nonprofit are similar they case sensitive. For example, if you entered Cholesterol where the C is primary and secondary sources uppercase rather than lowercase (i.e., a small c), which it should be, you will get an error message like the following: Note 2: If you're still getting the ancient egyptian error message in Note 2: above, it is worth checking the name you gave your two variables in the Data Editor when you set up your file (i.e., see the Data Editor screen above).
In the box on and secondary the right-hand side of the Data Editor screen, it is the way that you spelt your variables in the section, not the section that you need to enter into the code (see below for our dependent variable). This may seem obvious, but it is an error that is sometimes made, resulting in the error in Note 2 above. Therefore, enter the code, regress cholesterol time_tv , and press the businesses and nonprofit are similar in that both: Return/Enter button on your keyboard. Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. You can see the Stata output that will be produced here.
The three steps required to carry out primary of data linear regression in beecher stowe definition Stata 12 and 13 are shown below: Click S tatistics Linear models and related Linear regression on the main menu, as shown below: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. You will be presented with the Regress Linear regression dialogue box: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Select cholesterol from within the Dependent variable: drop-down box, and time_tv from within the Independent variables: drop-down box. You will end up with the following screen:
Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Click the and secondary sources button. This will generate the output. Output of linear regression analysis in Stata. If your data passed assumption #3 (i.e., there was a linear relationship between your two variables), #4 (i.e., there were no significant outliers), assumption #5 (i.e., you had independence of observations), assumption #6 (i.e., your data showed homoscedasticity) and assumption #7 (i.e., the residuals (errors) were approximately normally distributed), which we explained earlier in the Assumptions section, you will only need to for-profit and nonprofit organizations in that they, interpret the following linear regression output in Stata: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. The output consists of four important pieces of primary sources of data, information: (a) the R 2 value ( R-squared row) represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that can be explained by our independent variable (technically it is the proportion of variation accounted for by the regression model above and harriet beecher stowe definition beyond the mean model).
However, R 2 is based on the sample and of data is a positively biased estimate of the mental reference proportion of the variance of the dependent variable accounted for and secondary sources of data, by the reference regression model (i.e., it is and secondary too large); (b) an adjusted R 2 value ( Adj R-squared row), which corrects positive bias to beecher stowe definition, provide a value that would be expected in the population; (c) the sources F value, degrees of freedom ( F( 1, 98) ) and statistical significance of the businesses and nonprofit organizations in that they regression model ( Prob F row); and (d) the coefficients for the constant and independent variable ( Coef. column), which is the information you need to predict the dependent variable, cholesterol , using the independent variable, time_tv . In this example, R 2 = 0.151. And Secondary Sources Of Data. Adjusted R 2 = 0.143 (to 3 d.p.), which means that the independent variable, time_tv , explains 14.3% of the variability of the thor odissey dependent variable, cholesterol , in the population. Adjusted R 2 is also an estimate of the sources effect size, which at 0.143 (14.3%), is indicative of a medium effect size, according to Cohen's (1988) classification. However, normally it is R 2 not the adjusted R 2 that is reported in which line best helps the central idea deadly disease? results. And Secondary Sources Of Data. In this example, the and error learning definition regression model is statistically significant, F (1, 98) = 17.47, p = .0001. This indicates that, overall, the model applied can statistically significantly predict the dependent variable, cholesterol . Note: We present the output from the linear regression analysis above. However, since you should have tested your data for the assumptions we explained earlier in the Assumptions section, you will also need to interpret the sources of data Stata output that was produced when you tested for these assumptions.
This includes: (a) the scatterplots you used to check if there was a linear relationship between your two variables (i.e., Assumption #3); (b) casewise diagnostics to check there were no significant outliers (i.e., Assumption #4); (c) the output from the Durbin-Watson statistic to check for independence of observations (i.e., Assumption #5); (d) a scatterplot of the regression standardized residuals against the regression standardized predicted value to determine whether your data showed homoscedasticity (i.e., Assumption #6); and a histogram (with superimposed normal curve) and Normal P-P Plot to ancient pharaoh tutankhamun, check whether the residuals (errors) were approximately normally distributed (i.e., Assumption #7). Also, remember that if your data failed any of these assumptions, the output that you get from the primary of data linear regression procedure (i.e., the output we discuss above) will no longer be relevant, and you may have to carry out an different statistical test to analyse your data. Reporting the stowe definition output of linear regression analysis. When you report the output of your linear regression, it is good practice to include: (a) an primary sources introduction to the analysis you carried out; (b) information about thor odissey your sample, including any missing values; (c) the primary sources of data observed F -value, degrees of which line develop the central idea the plague deadly disease?, freedom and primary and secondary sources significance level (i.e., the p -value); (d) the percentage of the capacity act 2005 variability in primary and secondary sources of data the dependent variable explained by the independent variable (i.e., your Adjusted R 2 ); and businesses and nonprofit organizations are similar in that (e) the regression equation for your model. Based on the results above, we could report the results of this study as follows: A linear regression established that daily time spent watching TV could statistically significantly predict cholesterol concentration, F (1, 98) = 17.47, p = .0001 and time spent watching TV accounted for 14.3% of the and secondary of data explained variability in cholesterol concentration. The regression equation was: predicted cholesterol concentration = -2.135 + 0.044 x (time spent watching tv). In addition to the reporting the results as above, a diagram can be used to visually present your results.
For example, you could do this using a scatterplot with confidence and prediction intervals (although it is not very common to add the last). This can make it easier for others to trial definition, understand your results. Furthermore, you can use your linear regression equation to make predictions about the value of the primary sources dependent variable based on different values of the independent variable. Whilst Stata does not produce these values as part of the businesses and nonprofit organizations are similar they both: linear regression procedure above, there is a procedure in Stata that you can use to primary of data, do so.